» It is the introduction of new techniques of agriculture.
» Ground the world in Early 1960's at first for wheat and by the next decade for rice, too.
» The Green Revolution was centred around the use of the High Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds developed by the US Agro scientist Norman Borlaug doing research on a British Rockfellor Foundation Scholarship in Mexico by the early 1960's.
» The new wheat seeds which he developed invivo claimed to increase its productivity by more than 200%.
» By 1965, the seeds were successfully tested and were being used by farmers in food deficient countries such as Mexico, Taiwan.
Components of the Green Revolution
1. The HYV Seeds
» They were popularly called the dwarf variety of seeds with the help of repeated mutations.
» Borlaug had been able to develop a seed which was raised in its nature of nutrients supplied to the different parts of the wheat plant.
» Against the leaves, stem and in favour of the grain.
» These seeds were non-photosynthetic, hence non-dependent on sun rays for targeted yields.
2. The Chemical Fertilizers
» The level of nutrients they required could not be supplied with the traditional composites because they have low concentration of nutrients content and required bigger area while sowing.
» A high concentration fertilizer was required which could be given to the targeted seed only.
» The only option was the chemical fertilizers.
» Urea (N), Phosphate (P) and Potash (K).
3. The Irrigation
For controlled growth of crops
» Adequate dilution of fertilizers, a controlled means of water supply was required.
» It made two important compulsions.
» Firstly the area of such crops should be at least free of flooding.
» Secondly artificial water supply should be developed.
4. Chemical Pesticides and Germicides
» As the new seeds were new and non - acclimatised to local pests, germs and diseases than the established indigenous varieties, use of pesticides and germicides became compulsory for result oriented and secured yields.
5. Chemical Herbicides and Weedicides
» To prevent costlier input of fertilisers not being consumed by the herbs and the weeds in the farmlands, herbicides and weedicides were used while sowing the HYV seeds.
6. Credit, Storage, Marketing/ Distribution
» For farmers to be capable of using the new and the costlier inputs of the green revolution, availability of easy and cheaper credit was a must.
» All these peripheral infrastructure were developed by the countries going for the Green Revolution with softer loans coming from the World Bank.
» India being the biggest beneficiary.
Impact of the Green Revolution
The Green Revolution had it positive as well as negative socio - economic and ecological impacts on the countries around the world.
1. Socio - Economic Impact
» Food production increased in such a way (wheat in 1960's and rice, by 1970's) that many countries became self-sufficient (self sufficiency of food must be not be confused with the idea of food security) and some even emerged as food exporting countries.
» Rise in the incidence of malaria due to water logging, a swing in the balanced cropping patterns in favour of wheat and rice putting pulses, oil seeds, maize, barley on the margins, etc. were the negative impacts.
2. Eclolgical Impact
» The most devastating negative impact of the Green Revolution was the Ecological one.
i) Critical Ecological Crisis
It was found that critical ecological crises in the Green Revolution region are showing up.
a) Soil fertility being degraded
b) Water lable falling down
c) Environmental degradation due to excessive and Uncontrolled use of chemical fertilisers, Pesticides and herbicides
ii) Toxic Level in Food Chain
Toxic level in the food chain of India has increased to such a high level that nothing Produced in india is fit for human consumption.
» Weedicides and their industrial production combined together had polluted the land, water and air to such an alarmingly high level that the whole food chain had been a prey of high toxicity.