NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY MISSION
The NFSM launched in 2007, is a crop development scheme of the government of India that aims at additional production of 10, 8 and 2 million tonnes of rice, wheat and pulses respectively by the end of 2011 - 12.
» The mission interventions consist of
i) Seeds of improved variety
ii) Soil ameliorants
iii) Plant nutrients
iv) Farm machines/ implements
v) Plant protection measures
» In addition, a special initiative under the name of the accelerated pulses production programme was initiated in 2010 to boost the production of pulses by active promotion of technologies in 1,000 clusters of 1,000 hectare each.
RASHTRIYA KRISHI VIKAS YOJANA (RKVY)
The RKVY was launched in 2007 - 08 for incentivising states to enhance public investment to achieve 4 percent growth rate in agriculture and allied sectors during the Eleventh plan.
The sub - schemes include
i) Bring Green Revolution to eastern region
ii) Integrated development of 60,000 pulses villages in rainfed areas
iii) Promotion of oil palm
iv) Initiative on vegetable clusters
vi) National Mission for Protein supplements
vii) Accelerated Fodder Development Programme
viii) Rainfed Area Development programme
ix) Saffron Mission
NATIONAL HORTICULTURE MISSION (NHM)
The Horticulture sector includes a wide range of crops such as fruits, vegetables, roots and rubber crops, flowers, aromatic and medicinal plants, species and plantation crops, which facilitate diversification in agriculture.
» The NHM scheme was launched during the Tenth plan for holistic development of the horticulture sector, duly ensuring forward and backward linkages by adopting a cluster approach, with the active participation of all stakeholder.
» A major initiative has been taken during 2011 - 12 for enhancing the supply of food quality vegetables to metro cities under the Vegetable Initiative in Urban Clusters (VIUC)
NATIONALAGRICULTURAL POLICY - 2000
The union government has announced the new National Agriculture Policy in the parliament on july 28th, 2000.
» This policy has been planned under the provisions of the world trade organisation so as to face the challenges of the agriculture sector.
The salient feature of this policy are
i) 4% growth rate p.a. for next two decades.
ii) 4% growth rate p.a target tobe achieved by 2005.
iii) Land reforms to provide land to poor farmers.
iv) Consolidation of holding in all states of the nation.
v) Promoting private investments in agriculture.
vi) Provide insurance umberalla for crops to formers.
vii) Promote bio - technology.
viii) Promoting research for developing new varieties of crops and ensuring protection to the developed varieties.
There are various major crop insurance schemes under implementation in the country.
i) National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) the NAIS is a government sponsored central - sector crop insurance scheme being implemented in the country since 1999 - 2000 season.
ii) Modified NAIS (MNAIS) with the aim of further improving crop insurance schemes.
Some of the major improvements made in the MNAIS are
a) Actuarial premium with subsidy in premium at different rates
b) All claims liability to be on the insurer
c) Unit area of insurance reduced to village panchayat level for major crops
d) Indemnity for prevented/ sowing/ planting risk and for post - harvest losses due to cyclone
e) On account payment up to 25 percent advance of likely claims as immediate relief
f) More proficient basis for calculation of threshold yield
g) Allowing private sector insure with adequate infrastructure.
iii) Pilot Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) being implemented as a central-sector scheme from kharif 2007 season.
» The scheme is intended to provide protection to farmers against advance weather incidence.
iv) Krish Shramik Suraksha Yojna
» The multi-benefit scheme for the agricultural worker's commenced on july 1st, 2001, provides life insurance protection, lump sum survival benefit and pension to those who are between the age of 18 - 50 years.
v) Form income insurance scheme
The scheme commenced in january 2004 for providing insurance safeguards and economic security to farmers.
» Run by the ministry of agriculture and indian agriculture insurance company Ltd jointly.
a) Provides 'broader risk insurance'.
b) Conceived to provide income protection to the farmers by integrating the mechanism of insuring production as well as market risks.
c) Farmers income is protected by ensuring minimum guaranteed income.
d) Subsidy in premium payment.
e) Available for all the states and compulsory for farmers availing crop loans.
vi) Varsha bima (Rainfall Insurance Scheme)
Introduced in 2004 south-west monsoon period-covers all natural rainfall risks and provides five different options suiting varied requirements of the forming community.
a) Seasonal rainfall insurance based on aggregated rain fall from June to September
b) Sowing failure insurance based on rain fall between June and August.
c) Rainfall distribution insurance with the weightage assigned to different weeks between June and September.
d) Agronomic Index constructed on the basis of water requirements of crops.
e) A catastrophe option covering extremely adverse deviation of 50 percent and above in rainfall during the season. The scheme covers all natural Rainfall risks at the following stages.
» Failure of speed crop either in full or in parts due to natural risks.
» Loss in expected raw speed yield.
» Loss of seed crop after harvest.
» At seed Certification stage.
NATIONAL MISSION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE (NMSA)
The NMSA, Launched in 2011 - 12, aims at enhancing food security and protection of resources such as land, water, biodiversty and genetic resources by developing strategies to make Indian agriculture more resilient to climate change.
i) Indian agriculture, with two third rainfed area remains vulnerable to various vagaries of monsoon.
ii) Climate change will aggrative these risks and may considerably affect food security.
a) Potential adaptation strategies to deal with the adverse impacts of climate change.
b) Developing cultivars tolerant to heat, moisture and salinity stresses.
c) Modifying crop management practices.
d) Adopting new farm practices such as resource-conserving technologies.
e) Crop diversification, improving pest management.
f) Making available timely weather-based advisories.
g) Crop insurance and harnessing the indigenous technical knowledge of farmers.
SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION
Use of all eco-friendly means in cultivation is the Second Green Revolution (SGR) or Evergreen Revolution or Sustainable Agriculture.
» It include the agricultural practices such as
i) Replacing chemical fertilisers by bio-fertilisers
ii) In place of chemical pesticides using bio-pesticides
iii) Conserving water, balanced cropping pattern proper crop combinations etc.
Such agricultural practices are popular in developed economies as organic farming.
Impact Second Green Revolution
The Second Green Revolution has every prospect of revolutionising the agriculture sector of India with multidimensional positive impact on agriculture in particular and the economy in general.
i) This will provide India physical access to food.
ii) Every Indian will have economic access to food because of increase in production.
iii) India will also be able to make its agriculture sector ecologically safe.
» The achievement of ecological access will become possible
iv) The surplus agricultural produce will enter the world market and agriculture sector will be able to tap the benefits of globalisation.
v) It will create gainful employment sources in the agriculture sector on which more than 58 percent of the population depend for it's livelihood.
vi) It will eliminate hunger and malnutrition from India.
vii) India won't be an example of market failure.
» It's Market will succeed by increasing the purchasing capacity of the population.
viii) Living standard of the population will improve and development has to show up. Thus, India's rank on the Human Development Index (HDI) will improve for sure.
Second Green Revolution Strategy adopted in the Eleventh Plan
The following strategies to raise agricultural output
i) Doubling the rate of growth of irrigated area.
ii) Improving water management, rain water harvesting and watershed development.
iii) Reclaiming degraded land and focusing on soil quality.
iv) Bridging the knowledge gap through effective extension.
v) Diversifying into high value outputs, fruits, vegetables, flowers, herbs and spices, medicinal plants, bamboo, bio-diesel, but with adequate measure to ensure food security.
vi) Promoting animal husbandry and fishery.
vii) Providing easy access to credit at affordable rates.
viii) Improving the incentive structure and functioning of markets.
ix) Refocusing on land reforms issues.