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Tribal Population in India

     It is estimated that Advises constitute 8.2% of the total population of the India and yet the Tribals are among the most marginalized people in Indian society. They have a rich and distinct identity and culture. Each of the tribal communities has its territorial identification. Adivasi people live in close proximity to nature and are separated from mainstream society. Women in tribal communities enjoy equal status with men.

There are three basic groups of Adivasis in India:
1. Hill tribe groups; have access to land, assets, forest produce and form part of Gram-Shabas;
2. Semi-nomadic plain groups; live in the foothills and hunt; depend on others/landowners;
3. Nomadic groups; often depend on selling handicrafts, begging; landless labourers.
  Adivasi were the original inhabitants of India living in the planes but with various invasions they were driven to the forests and mountains. As a result their livelihood depended mostly on the collection of forest produce, hunting and cultivation in difficult hill terrains. Over centuries they have become increasingly disadvantaged - economically, socially and politically - and vulnerable to marginalization and exploitation. More than 40.1% of the tribals are displaced throughout India. 45.86% of the Scheduled Tribe (STs) population lives below the poverty line (BPL) in rural areas alone and at national level this rises to 55.2%.


Fifth & Sixth Schedules
    In India most of the tribes are collectively identified under Article 342 (1&2) as Scheduled Tribes and right to self determination guaranteed by Part X : The Scheduled and Tribal Areas – Article 244: Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas.
(1) The provisions of the Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration and control of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in any State (other than the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram).
(2) The provisions of the Sixth Schedule shall apply to the administration of the tribal areas in the State of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
Sixth Schedule contains provisions as to the administration of tribal areas in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. This law gives enormous freedoms to the autonomous regions and districts in terms of legislative and executive power. The law notes that each autonomous region shall have its own autonomous Regional Council and every autonomous district its own autonomous District Council.
      The Regional Council or District Council have the power to constitute village Councils or courts for the trial of suits and cases between the parties all of whom belong to scheduled tribes within such areas. The District Councils, additionally, are given the power to establish, manage and construct primary schools, dispensaries, markets, cattle pounds, ferries, fisheries, roads, road transport and waterways in the district, which gives them a stake also in many other fields, besides administration. The Regional Councils and District Councils are also endowed with the power to assess and collect revenues. States such as Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh have often demanded their tribal regions be notified in the Sixth Schedule so that get more autonomous power.

Posted Date : 05-02-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.



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