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ADMINISTRATIVE & LEGISLATIVE REFORMS BEFORE 1857

Regulating Act of 1773:
Features of the act

     A landmark act in Indian History that has constitutional importance as it laid the principles of central administration in India, immediate access of the East India Company in India also it recognized the political and administrative functions from the Company. The features of the act are:
* It designated the Governor of Bengal because the Governor – General of Bengal and created a professional Council of four members to help him. The first such Governor – General was Lord Warren Hastings.
* Governors of Bombay and Madras were created subordinate to governor- general of Bengal.
* Establishment of Supreme court at Calcutta in 1774 comprising one chief justice and three other judges.
* Court of Directors were inspired to report on its revenue, civil and military affairs in India.

 

Pitts India Act of 1784
 

Features of the act
* It was enacted to improve upon the provisions of Regulating Act of 1773 to bring about better discipline in the Company’s system of administration.
* A 6 member Board of Coordinators was set up which was headed by a minister of the British Government. All political responsibilities were given to this board.
* Trade and commerce related issues were under the purview of the Court of the Directors of the company.
* Provinces had to follow the instructions of the Central Government and Governor General was empowered to dismiss the failing provincial government.


Charter Act of 1813
 

Features of the act
* Trade monopoly of the East India Company came to an end.
* Powers of the three Councils of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta were enlarged; they were also subjected to greater control of the British Parliament.
* The Christian Missionaries were allowed to spread their religion in India.
* Local autonomous bodies were empowered to levy taxes.

 

Charter Acts of 1833 and 1853:
   These acts were the closing steps towards centralization in British India.
* Governor General of Bengal is made the Governor General of India and vested in him all civil and military powers. Lord William Bentick was the very first governor general of India.
* It deprived the governor of Bombay and Madras of the legislative powers. The governor general of India was given exclusive legislative powers for the whole British India.
* Introduction of Indian legislative council which found known as mini parliament.
* The laws made underneath the previous acts were known as regulations and laws made under this act were known as Acts.
* It ended those activities of the east India Company like a commercial body, which was a purely administrative body.
* An effort was made to introduce open competition for civil servants that was initially rejected by court of directors but later repealed.
* Indians were also given an opportunity to be part of Indian legislative Council.

Posted Date : 03-02-2021

 

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