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The human skeleton can be divided into 2 Types.
a. The axial skeleton:

It contains
* Skull (cranial bones and facial bones)
 The skull consists of 8 cranial bones and 14 facial bones.
 The bones of the skull provide protection for the brain and the organs of vision, taste, hearing, equilibrium, and smell. The bones also provide attachment for muscles that move the head and control facial expressions and chewing.
* Hyoid bone (1 Bone)
* Auditory ossicles 
* Vertebral column (also called the "spine" or "backbone") 26 bones (33 in children)
    7 Cervix (neck)
   ‣ 12 Thorax
    5 Lumbar
    5 Sacral
    4 Coccyx
* Sternum bone (1)
* Ribs which, together with the sternum, form the "thorax"
 The sternum (breastbone) consists of three fused bones. The manubrium, body, and xiphoid process.
 There are 12 pairs of ribs. All ribs articulate posteriorly with a corresponding thoracic vertebra.
 Seven pairs of ribs (vertebrosternal ribs) attach directly to the sternum with hyaline cartilage called costal cartilage.
 Three pairs of false ribs (vertebrochondral ribs) do not attach to the sternum. Rather, they connect (with costal cartilage) to the rib directly above them.
 Two pairs of false ribs (floating ribs or vertebral ribs) do not attach to anything at their anterior ends.


b. The appendicular skeleton
* Shoulder girdles which include the scapulae (shoulder blades) and a clavicle on each side of the bone (also known as "collar bones") – 2 pairs
* Upper Limbs (Arms include wrists and hands)
* Pelvic (hip) girdle which includes the hip bones (= "coxal bones") called the ilium, ischium and pubis (1 pair)


* Lower Limbs (Legs includes ankles and feet).


Posted Date : 03-02-2021


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