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Cytology: Cytology, more commonly known as cell biology, studies cell structure, cell composition, and the interaction of cells with other cells and the larger environment in which they exist. The term "cytology" can also refer to cytopathology, which analyzes cell structure to diagnose disease. Microscopic and molecular studies of cells can focus on either multi-celled or single-celled organisms. Cell is the Structural and Fundamental unit of body.

The formation of an organism from the cell.                                                  

* Largest cell – Ostrich egg 
* Smallest cell- sperm 
* Father of cell biology : Robert Hooke
    Robert Hooke(1665) using an early microscope viewed cork and saw many repeating box-like structures and called them "cells." What he saw were spaces surrounded by walls that once contained living cells. 
* Father of microscopy: Anton van Leeuwenhoek 
* Cell theory was proposed by Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann.
i. Cells are the fundamental unit of life - nothing less than a cell is alive.
ii. All organisms are constructed of and by cells.
iii. All cells arise from preexisting cells. Cells contain the information necessary for their own reproduction. No new cells are originating spontaneously on earth today.
iv. Cells are the functional units of life. All biochemical processes are carried out by cells.
v. Groups of cells can be organized and function as multicellular organisms
vi. Cells of multicellular organisms can become specialized in form and function to carry out subprocesses of the multicellular organism. 

* As cell size increases the volume increases much faster than the surface area. Cells obtain nutrients, gain information and rid waste through their plasma membrane. As cell size increases, a cell’s ability to exchange with its environment becomes limited by the amount of membrane area that is available for exchange.

Histology: Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals. It is commonly performed by examining cells and tissues under a light microscope or electron microscope, which have been sectioned, stained and mounted on a microscope slide. Histological studies may be conducted using tissue culture, where live human or animal cells are isolated and maintained in an artificial environment for various research projects.

Anatomy: Anatomy is the study of the structure of an object, in this case the human body. Human anatomy deals with the way the parts of humans, from molecules to bones, interact to form a functional unit. The study of anatomy is distinct from the study of physiology, although the two are often paired. While anatomy deals with the structure of an organism, physiology deals with the way the parts function together. For example, an anatomist may study the types of cells in the cardiac conduction system and how those cells are connected, while a physiologist would look at why and how the heart beats. Thus, anatomy and physiology are separate, but complimentary, studies of how an organism works.

Posted Date : 03-02-2021


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