Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred from the anther (male part) to the stigma (female part) of the plant, thereby enabling fertilization and reproduction. This takes place in the angiosperms, the flower bearing plants. In spite of a common perception that pollen grains are gametes, like the sperm cells of animals; pollination is an event in the alternation of generations. Each pollen grain is a male haploid gametophyte, adapted to being transported to the female gametophyte, where it can effect fertilization by producing the male gamete (or gametes), in the process of double fertilization.
Fertilisation or fertilization is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism. In animals, the process involves the fusion of an ovum with a sperm, which eventually leads to the development of an embryo. Depending on the animal species, the process can occur within the body of the female in internal fertilisation, or outside (external fertilisation). The cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction.