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AGENTS OF SPREADING DISEASES

     Diseases are caused by germs, which are transmitted from one person to another through. These are mainly spread in five ways, they are:
     1. Diseases caused by air
     2. Diseases caused by water and food
     3. Diseases caused by Mosquitoes
     4. Diseases caused by House flies
     5. Diseases caused by mal nutrition

 

i. Diseases caused by the air are
     An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens and transmitted through the air. Such diseases include many that are of considerable importance both in human and veterinary medicine. The relevant pathogens may be viruses, bacteria, or fungi, and they may be spread through coughing, sneezing, raising of dust, spraying of liquids, or similar activities likely to generate aerosol particles or droplets. Strictly speaking airborne diseases do not include conditions caused simply by air pollution such as dusts and poisons, though their study and prevention may be related.

Main diseases that caused by air are
     1. Cold
     2. Chicken fox
          a) Bird flu
          b) Swine flu
     3. Smallpox
     4. Measles
     5. Influenza
     6. Pneumonia
     7. Diphtheria
     8. Pertussis
     9. Tuberculosis
     10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome

 

ii. List of diseases spread by water
     Water is one of the nature’s most essential gift to mankind. The basic need for survival of human being is water. Water is life. It is important for the sustenance and growth of human beings as well as of all animals and plants. Our body needs water in many different forms in order to keep functioning and clean water is absolutely essential for healthy living. It is necessary for digestion, absorption of food, supplies oxygen and nutrition to cells, helps to get rid of body’s waste, etc. It is needed by all the flaura and fauna but the biggest issue is getting clean water. Water gives us huge number of benefits. Biggest concerns of today are about the quality of water. Most of the ill health of our country is due to lack of safe drinking water. Although the Earth is covered 70% by water only 1% is available for drinking and the rest is unsafe for drinking. The strange fact is that we are provided with so much water and can only use 1% of it. The other 69% is polluted with many different substances, including organic and inorganic matter, chemicals and other contaminants which infects the body with numerous dangerous diseases. Water is required for many purposes, so it should be safe and healthy. Water is therefore an essential factor in the economic, social and cultural development of the country.
     1. Polio (Poliomyelitis)
     2. Polyomavirus infection
     3. SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome)

     4. Malaria
     5. Lead poisoning
     6. Hepatitis A
     7. Diarrhoea
     8. Dysentery
     9. Cholera
     10. Amoebiasis
     11. Madcow

 

iii. List of diseases spread by Mosquitoes
     Mosquitoes cause more human suffering than any other organism -- over one million people worldwide die from mosquito-borne diseases every year. Not only can mosquitoes carry diseases that afflict humans, they also transmit several diseases and parasites that dogs and horses are very susceptible to. These include dog heartworm, West Nile virus (WNV) and Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). In addition, mosquito bites can cause severe skin irritation through an allergic reaction to the mosquito's saliva - this is what causes the red bump and itching. Mosquito vectored diseases include protozoan diseases, i.e., malaria, filarial diseases such as dog heartworm, and viruses such as dengue, encephalitis and yellow fever. CDC Travelers' Health provides information on travel to destinations where human-borne diseases might be a problem.

     1. Malaria
     2. Chikungunya
     3. Dog heart warm
     4. Dengue
     5. Yellow fever
     6. Eastern equine encephalitis
     7. St. Louis Encephalitis
     8. LaCrosse Encephalitis
     9. Western Equine Encephalitis
     10. West Nile Virus

 

iv. Diseases caused by House flies
     House flies are recognized as carriers of easily communicable diseases. Flies collect pathogens on their legs and mouths when females lay eggs on decomposing organic matter such as feces, garbage and animal corpses.

     House flies carry diseases on their legs and the small hairs that cover their bodies. It takes only a matter of seconds for them to transfer these pathogens to food or touched surfaces. Mature house flies also use saliva to liquefy solid food before feeding on it. During this process, they transfer the pathogens first collected by landing on offal.
     1. Anthrax
     2. Cholera
     3. Conjunctivitis (epidemic)
     4. Diptheria (cutaneous)
     5. Dysentery
     6. Food poisoning/gastroenteritis
     7. Leprosy
     8. Poliomyelitis
     9. Trachoma
     10. Tuberculosis
     11. Typhoid fever
     12. Yaws

 

v. Diseases caused by mal nutrition
     Our body needs carbohydrate, protein, fat, fibre, minerals, vitamins, electrolytes and water to survive. Obtaining the correct balance and quantities of these nutrients is essential to your health and well-being; for example to promote growth and overcome illness and damage, to provide energy and allow proper functioning of your body's systems. The exact requirement for each nutrient is determined by your age, sex and activity levels.
     When our body does not get enough energy, protein and other nutrients it becomes malnourished. Sustained malnourishment or 'malnutrition' can harm the body, affecting body composition and function and the processing of nutrients within the body known as 'metabolism'. Common consequences of malnutrition include a greater chance of infection, slower wound healing, weakness/fatigue, decreased bone strength and impaired functioning of the heart, lungs and gastrointestinal (GI) system. Indeed, persisting malnutrition can be life threatening.
     Disease-related malnutrition, as the name suggests, is malnutrition triggered by illness or disease. In this scenario, the effects of malnutrition can then complicate the disease itself, leading to a vicious cycle of complications. Diseases frequently implicated in disease-related malnutrition include cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney failure, chronic heart failure, cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Certain treatments can also have a negative effect on nutrition.

 

Main diseases caused by malnutrition are:
     1. Scurvy
     2. Rickets
     3. Beriberi
     4. Pellagra
     5. Marasmus
     6. Kwashiorkor
     7. Anemia
     8. Goiter
     9. Hyponatremia
     10. Hypokalemia
     11. Vitamin Deficiency

Posted Date : 03-02-2021

 

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