The Constitution provides for a federal form of government. In a federation, there are two governments-at the central level and at the state (province) level. In India, the powers of the government are divided between the central government and state governments. There are three different lists of subjects- (i) Union list, (ii) State list and (iii) Concurrent list. The Union list contains 97 subjects of national importance like Defence, Foreign Affairs, Currency, Post and Telegraph, Railways.
On these subjects, only central legislature (Parliament) can make laws. State list contains 66 subjects of local importance. On these subjects, state legislatures make laws. These subjects include agriculture, police, and jails. Concurrent list contains 47 subjects which are of common concern to both the central and state governments.
These include marriage, divorce, social security etc. On these subjects, both the parliament and state legislatures can legislate. However, if there is a conflict between a central law and the state law over a subject given in the concurrent list, the central law will prevail.
Indian Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government. President is nominal head of the state. In actual practice, the government is run by the Prime Minister and other members of the Council of Minister. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Parliament.