There are seven Union territories, namely:
i. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
iii. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
iv. Daman and Diu
vi. National Capital Territory of Delhi
Out of the above seven Union territories, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Puducherry have legislatures, Council of Ministers and Consolidated Funds. The rest of the Union territories are without legislature.
The total area covered by the seven Union territories is 10,973 sq. km. and their population, as per the 2001 census, is 1,65,20,983.
The Union Territories are specified in Schedule I Part II of the Constitution of India. These territories are administered in accordance with the provisions of Article 239 to 241 of the Constitution of India. Under the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules 1961, Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal Ministry for all matters of Union territories relating to Legislation, Finance & Budget, Services and appointment of Lt. Governors and Administrators. Every Union territory is administered by an Administrator appointed by the President under Article 239 of the Constitution of India. In Delhi, Puducherry and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, the Lt. Governors are designated as Administrators.
The Governor of Punjab is appointed as the Administrator of Chandigarh. In the other Union territories, senior IAS officers of the Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, and Mizoram and Union territories are appointed as Administrators.
All the five UTs without legislature Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Lakshadweep have the forum of Home Minister’s Advisory Committee (HMAC), on which, besides the Administrator and Member of Parliament from the respective Union territory, members from the local elected bodies e.g. District Panchayats and Municipal Council/ Committees are nominated as members. Meetings of the HMAC are chaired by the Union Home Minister or in his absence, by the Minister of State in the Ministry. The Committee discusses the general issues relating to social and economic development of the Union territories.
(I) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
It consists of two groups of islands in the Bay of Bengal about 800 mi (1,300 km) east of the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka; the total area is 3,185 sq mi (8,249 sq km). The chief islands are North Andaman, Middle Andaman, and South Andaman (known collectively as Great Andaman), and Little Andaman. The Nicobar group includes Car Nicobar, Camorta (Kamorta) and Nancowry, and Great Nicobar. Of the hundreds of islands that constitute the territory, the number of populated islands of the Andaman group is about double that of the Nicobar group. Port Blair on South Andaman, established by the British in 1858, is the territorial capital.
The Andamans comprise more than 300 islands. North, Middle, and South Andaman, known collectively as Great Andaman, are the main islands; others include Landfall Island, Interview Island, the Sentinel Islands, Ritchie’s Archipelago, and Rutland Island. Little Andaman in the south is separated from the Nicobar Islands by the Ten Degree Channel, which is about 90 miles (145 km) wide.
The Nicobars consist of 19 islands. Among the most prominent are Car Nicobar in the north; Camorta, Katchall, and Nancowry in the centre of the chain; and Great Nicobar in the south. About 90 miles to the southwest of Great Nicobar lies the northwestern tip of Sumatra, Indonesia.
Relief and drainage
Both the Andaman and Nicobar groups are part of a great island arc, formed by the above seaextensions of submarine ridges of the Rakhine Mountains and the Patkai Range to ‐ the north and the Mentawai Ridge (the peaks of which form the Mentawai Islands of Indonesia) to the south. The highest elevation is 2,418 feet (737 metres) at Saddle Peak on North Andaman, followed by Mount Thullier at 2,106 feet (642 metres) on Great Nicobar and Mount Harriet at 1,197 feet (365 metres) on South Andaman. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, there were volcanic eruptions on Barren Island in the northern Andamans.
Formed of sandstone, limestone, and shale of Cenozoic age (i.e., formed during the past 65 million years), the terrain of the Andamans is rough, with hills enclosing narrow longitudinal valleys. Flat land is scarce and is confined to a few valleys, such as the Betapur on Middle Andaman and Diglipur on North Andaman. Perennial rivers are few. The coralfringed coasts of the islands are deeply indented, forming safe harbours and tidal creeks.
The vast majority of the population of the Andamans consists of immigrants from South Asia and their descendants. Most speak Hindi or Bengali, but Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam also are common. The indigenous inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, the Andamanese, historically comprised small isolated groups—all speaking dialects of the Andamanese language. They used the bow and the dog (introduced to the Andamans c. 1857) for hunting but knew no method of making fire. Turtles, dugongs, and fish were caught with nets or harpooned from single outrigger canoes. The remoteness of the Andamanese and their general hostility toward foreigners prevented major cultural change until the mid - 20th century. Few indigenous Andamanese survive today, most groups having been decimated by disease following their encounter with Europeans, Indians, and other outsiders.
In the early 21st century the only Andamanese groups that remained intact and continued to practice the ways of their ancestors included a small group of Great Andamanese on Strait Island, the Sentinelese of North Sentinel Island, the Jarawa of the interior areas of Middle and South Andaman, and the Onge of Little Andaman.
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
A special agricultural package with an outlay of Rs.239 crore for reclaiming agricultural land as well as improving the agricultural productivity is already under implementation. Under this package the A&N Administration has introduced various innovative programmes. This includes introduction of vegetable cultivation in tribal areas, promoting inter cropping, high value agriculture, cashew plantation, organic farming, etc. Restoration of coconut plantation is also underway through development and distribution of coconut saplings. Multiple cropping systems have been successfully introduced in the Nicobar Group of Islands.
Agriculture is the occupation of most of the residents of the Andaman Islands. Principal crops include rice, coconuts, betel (areca nuts), fruits, and spices (such as turmeric). Rubber, oil palms, and cashews also are important.
In addition to farming there is a small forestry sector on the islands, which focuses on production of sawn wood for domestic use; surpluses are exported to the Indian mainland. Similarly, the products of the islands’ fisheries are intended primarily for domestic consumption
Neither the Andaman nor the Nicobar island groups are highly industrialized. However, a variety of manufacturing activities are undertaken on both sets of islands. Furniture and other wood products are manufactured on the Andaman Islands. Processed foods and garments are among the principal products of both island groups.
Chandigarh is only planned city in India with a population of 9.01 lakh in the year 2001. It is one of the fastest growing city with a population decadal growth rate of 40.30%. The construction of capital city of joint Punjab was started in early 50s. The City Chandigarh was declared a Union Territory in the year 1966 with joint capital of both the states of Punjab and Haryana. It is situated in the foot of Shivalik hills.
The area of Union Territory of Chandigarh is 114 sq. km. only with 22 villages falling in the jurisdiction of Union Territory. Since the formation of Union Territory in the year 1966, all the functions such as water supply, sewerage, storm water drainage, city roads, solid waste management and fire wing etc. were looked after by respective departments of Chandigarh Administration. With the formation of Municipal Corporation Chandigarh in the year 1994 (with 20 wards) with its jurisdictional area of 79.34 sq. kms.; the functions of original works & maintenance for V4,V5 and V6 roads; water supply, sewerage, storm water drainage, solid waste Management and fire wing were transferred to Municipal Corporation, Chandigarh.
Chandigarh falls under Koeppen’s Cwg category i.e it has cold dry winder, hot summer and sub tropical monsoon. Evaporation usually exceeds precipitation and the weather is generally dry. The area experiences four seasons:
(i) Summer or hot season (mid- March to Mid-June)
(ii) Rainy season (late-June to mid-September);
(iii) Post mansoon autumn/transition season (mid September to Mid- November);
(iv) Winter (mid November to mid-March).
The dry spell of summer is long but with occasional drizzles or under storms. May and June are the hottest months of the year with mean daily minimum & maximum temperatures being about 40º C & 25º C, respectively. Southwest monsoons with high intensity showers in late June and July. The weather at that time is hot and humid.
The variation in annual rainfall on year-to-year basis is appreciable i.e. 700 mm to 1200 mm. The 20 year average rainfall for Chandigarh is 1100.7 mm. January is the coldest month with mean maximum and minimum temperatures being around 24º C and 1.8º C respectively.
City Development Plan under JNNURM:
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission has been launched by Govt. of India in the year 2005-2006 to carry out development of selected city. To access the funds under JNNURM, the selected city is required to prepare City Development Plans (CDPs) and implement the reforms at the state and the city levels by entering into a tripartite agreement. The Municipal Corporation of Chandigarh has consolidated the City Development Plan and the Municipal Action Plans respectively and strengthened them.
The CDP took the inputs from studies viz., City Development Strategy and Concept Plan for Chandigarh. A series of consultations were organized involving a wide spectrum of stakeholders including the elected representatives, business and trade, government departments, etc. This CDP is result of extensive consultations with stakeholders of both in the Municipal Corporation, Chandigarh and Chandigarh Administration as per the guidelines of Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission.
The development work of Phase-I was started in early 50s. Most of the work in Phase- I was completed by 1975: though some of the pockets were yet to be developed and had been kept as reserve area. The development in Phase-II sectors had been taken up simultaneously. The planned population of Phase-I and Phase-II was only 5.00 lac persons. However, this figure has already been exceeded. According to 2001, census the population of Chandigarh Union Territory was 9.01 lacs, which clearly indicates the steep rise in the population in the last decade from 1991 to 2001 having incremental rate of 4.03% per year. According to projected population and current growth rate, the population of the city would rise to 13.38 lacs in 2011 and 19.85 lacs in 2021. The figures are going to exceed further in view of rehabilitation programme of Chandigarh Administration for the jhuggi dwellers. The number of colonies such as Dhanas, Maloya, Dadu Majra, Palsora, Bapu Dham etc. have already been rehabilitated and there is another proposal to rehabilitate the jhuggi dwellers who have encroached the land in the eastern and southern part of the city. These people have to be rehabilitated by constructing about 23000 dwelling units near Dhanas as per plan of Chandigarh Administration.
Population growth in the City
Chandigarh was planned for a finite population of half-a-million. In Phase I, 36 sq.Km. of land was acquired by the city administration for construction of 30 sectors. Land for seventeen additional Sectors (Sector 31 to 47) was acquired and developed during the second phase to cater for a population of 350000 the predominance of 3 to 4 storey apartments in second phase provide for higher population dimension. However, Chandigarh has now grown beyond its planned capacity. Hence, development in the third phase has started in sector 48 and beyond. Demographic data indicate that between 1961 and 1971, the population increased by 144.59 percent, one of the highest for urban areas in India. According to 1981 census, it grew by another 75.55 percent, followed by 42.16 percent in 1991 and by 40.33 percent in 2001 (with a total population of 9,00635). By 2021 the population of Chandigarh is projected to be around 19.5 lacs (at current rate of growth) almost four times, for which it was originally built.
Economic Base and Occupational Distribution
The economy of Chandigarh is witnessing a transformation from traditional manufacturing towards a knowledge-based economy. This is primarily due to policies of the Central government/U.T.
Administration to promote knowledge sector and tourism through a series of initiatives and programs. Knowledge sector, particularly Information Technology and IT enabled services (ITES) alongwith the Biotechnology is gaining momentum in the Chandigarh. The knowledge sector Corridor consists of:
* IT & IT enabled services
* Biotechnology and medical sciences
* Industrial technologies
Chandigarh is emerging as one of the growing IT cities of the country and many M.N.C’s are shifting from Bangalore. The state is making concerted efforts to promote key initiatives in this sector to leverage information technology to attain a position of leadership and excellence in the information age. The road map identifies "Chandigarh" as a large and thriving mega IT Hub with a significant number of top IT companies having their presence in Chandigarh. In addition, the focus on IT enabled services is likely to increase employment opportunities in this sector. Towards promotion of IT sector, several initiatives have been taken up such as setting up of Rajiv Gandhi I.T. Park, development of a hi-tech city, egovernance initiatives, and encouraging private sector presence in Chandigarh’s Software Technology Park. Further steps have envisaged in the same direction are the Part-II of I.T. Chandigarh.
Governance, Institutional Framework and Reforms:
Population growth of city makes the scale and complexity of urban problems very daunting. It requires efficient and effective governance framework. Urban governance refers to the management of civic affairs by institutions to improve the quality of life in an inclusive, transparent, equitable and accountable manner. The ‘good urban governance’ is characterized by equity, efficiency, transparency, accountability, civic engagement and security of people as well as environment. This is the urban governance that enhances city’s competitiveness and contributes to sustainability. A number of departments/ institutions are involved in governing a city. They include the state government departments, local bodies and parastatals. While the departments are part of government, the local bodies and parastatals are created through Acts of legislature or government orders.
At the helm of the Municipal Corporation, Chandigarh there is the corporation democratically elected by the community as per the 74th CAA. The present Municipal Corporation was elected in December 2001 and has five-year tenure.
As per the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, following committees have been constituted and they are endowed with the functions of maintenance of sanitation, water supply and drainage, street lighting, roads, horticulture, five apni mandis and school buildings. They also review the revenue collection, prepare draft annual budget, and send it to the council for incorporation in the city’s annual budget.
Reforms at the State and City Level:
Reforms and Change are critical elements in development process; they become more significant in urban development in the context of growth of cities and consequent pressure on infrastructure and services, growth of poverty, etc. this is compounded by institutional constraints like in capacity, fragmented structures, functional overlaps and dated processes and procedures. In addition, there has been a paradigm shift in governance from the traditional top-down model. As a result governance reforms have become imperative for efficient delivery of services, provision and maintenance of infrastructure and to provide efficient and responsive governance to the people. Recognizing the significance of reforms to provide efficient and effective governance, Chandigarh Administration has initiated and implementing several urban sector reforms during the last few years.
Similarly the urban local bodies particularly the municipal corporations have initiated city specific reforms to improve governance and delivery of services of water supply, roads & sanitation.
Reforms at the level of Chandigarh Administration
The reforms initiated at the state level fall under three categories namely 74th CAA, Governance and Pro-poor. They are discussed below:
Reforms related to 74th Constitution Amendment Act (CAA)
Development State Urban Development & Poverty Reduction Strategy Governance
Establishment of Strategy Performance and Innovation Unit (SPIU)
E-Governance initiatives just e-sampark kendra
Outsourcing of services
Developing partnerships in service delivery
Downsizing sizes of staff in ULB and Govt.
Preparation of common municipal act for corporation and municipalities
Simplification of planning regulations and procedure to make it public friendly.
Framework for solid waste management
Rationalization of stamp duty to the extent of 5%.
Preparation of actions plans for poverty reduction by ULBs and Govt.
Affordable water supply connection to BPL families
New citizen friendly street vendor policy
Reforms at the City Level – Municipal Corporation of Chandigarh:
Municipal Corporation of Chandigarh has initiated several reforms to improve service delivery and strengthen municipal performance in the city. Some of these reforms are in tune with 74th Constitution Amendment Act. They include:
Information technology for better civic services
Area based property tax system
Modified accrual system for accounting 35
Utility mapping on GIS platform envisaged
Efforts towards a fiscally prudent organization
Levy of user charges
Formulation of City Development Strategy
Introduction of self - assessment schemes
Projection to make city free from open defecation.
(iii) Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Dadra & Nagar Haveli. Endowed with nature's munificence, it's a land of spell binding beauty... green forests, winding rivers, unimaginable waterfronts, gentle gurgle of streams, distant dotting mountain ranges, a gorgeous kaleidoscope of flora and fauna. Owing to its serenity and quaint sylvan surroundings, this territory is a heaven for those who hunt around for a tranquil holiday.
In order to keep the English at bay and to enlist their support against the Mughals, the Marathas made friends with the Portuguese and signed a treaty in 1779. According to this historic treaty of friendship, the Maratha-Peshwa agreed that the Portuguese will be allowed to collect revenue from Dadra and Nagar Haveli which consisted of 72 villages, then known as parganas in compensation for their loss of a warship called ‘Santana’ which had earlier been captured by the Marathas but not surrendered to the Portuguese inspite of their many entreaties.
These territories were earlier ruled by the Koli chiefs who were defeated by the Hindu kings of Jawhar and Ramnagar. The Marathas conquered and annexed these territories to their kingdom.
The area of Dadra & Nagar Haveli spread over 491.00 sq.kms. Land locked between Gujarat in North and Maharashtra in South was liberated from Portuguese Rulers by people themselves on 2nd August 1954. The people of the U.T. established free Administration of Dadra & Nagar Haveli, which was finally merged in to Union of India in the year 1961.
Land, People & Culture:
The U.T. of Dadra & Nagar Haveli is located on the western side of the foot hills of western Ghat and has undulating terrain 40% of the total geographical area is covered with forests and thus offers it a look of woodland. The major river Damanganga and its tributaries criss-cross the U.T. and drain into Arabian Sea at Daman. The U.T. has population of 2.20 lakhs as per the 2001 census which has predominance of tribals forming a major chunk of 62% of the total population.
The major tribes are Varlies, Kokana, Dhodia and Dublas. The tribals have their distinct culture of their own consisting of curious rituals and colorful folk-lore. No occasion in tribal life is complete, be it a marriage or harvest without a folk dance. The major dances are Tarpa, Dhol, Bhavada and Gherria. The performers of these foot-tapping dances are equally good in other arts and art forms and are almost independent for most of their daily requirements.
As per census 2001, the tribals constitute 62.24 % of the total population of the territory. The main tribes are Dhodia, Kokna and Varli with small groups of Koli, Kathodi, Naika and dubla scattered over the territory. The Dhodias and Dublas are mainly confined to the Northern part of the territory whereas the Koknas and Varlis and found all over. From the total population of Tribals, the Varlis consitute 62.94% and the Koknas and Dhodias comprise 16.85 and 16.90% respectively of the tribal population., 2.29% Dublas, 0.08% Kathodis, 0.84% Kolghas and 0.08% Nayakas being the smallest groups represents 3.31% of the population together situated between the foothills of Western Ghats on one side, and the Arabian Sea on the other, this land of colorful tribals is known as Dadra & Nagar Haveli.
This area of 491 sq.kms. is the home land of nearly one lakh people of various tribes. It has seen many rulers, ranging from the mighty Marathas to the fiery Portuguese. Yet, the essence of tribal life, its richness and variety, its art, myth, song and folklore, have all remained unchanged.
Aim & Objectives
Rising agriculture production and productivity through wider adoption of appropriate eco-specific and cost effective technology.
Bringing more area under high yielding hybrid and improved varieties of crops through & increased supply of quality and planting materials.
Increasing cropping intensity.
Intensifying of farmers training and conducting of demonstration of farmers in the villages.
Farmers to be encouraged for Mechanization through the use of Agricultural Implements and Machineries.
Sustainable agriculture through IPM, INM, Watershed and Organic cultivation to be emphasized and popularized.
Infrastructure facilities of the existing government farms to be strengthened for the production of the quality seeds, planting materials and developing them as Model Demonstration Centres for the farmers.
Emphasis would be given on crisis management in the natural calamities.
Study tour and training for farmers and technical staff will be priority to upgrade their technical know-how and for which there is a Farmers Training Centre at Silvassa.
Analysis of soil samples collected from the farmer’s field to know the NPK content and micro nutrients for judicious use of fertilizers and to reduce the cost of cultivation is our priority for which Soil Testing Laboratory is available.
Under the scheme SC/ST, Small & Marginal farmers are granted loan and subsidy for purchase of diesel engine/electric motor pump set, PVC pipes, storage Bin and Agricultural implements on 50% loan. The subsidy for purchase of Electric Motor/Diesel Engine Pumpset and PVC pipes is given to the SC/ST & small & marginal farmers as per the different criteria of the scheme limited to unit cost of NABARD. Amount of Loan is provided through the lead banks whereas subsidy is granted by the department under this scheme. There is provision to grant 50% subsidy to SC/ST farmers & 33% to marginal & 25% to small farmers.
There is also provision under scheme for supply of agriculture implements at the rate of 50:50 loan & subsidy basis up to the cost of Rs.500. There is also provision for supply of 20 Kgs. Storage bin at the rate of 50:50 loan & subsidy basis limited to Rs.200 for subsidy. The storage bins is procured from the Gujarat Agro Industries Corporation (A Govt. of Gujarat under taking) & supplied to the farmers on loan & subsidy basis.
(iv) Daman and Diu:
The Union Territory of Daman & Diu consists of two districts. The headquarters of the Union Territory is Daman. Diu is a tiny island on the Kathiawar coast. Daman is located more than 700 kms on the sea shore adjacent to the southern portion of Gujarat State. This territory was ruled by the Portugese for more than four and a half centuries till it was finally liberated from colonial rule in 1961. Both Daman and Diu became a part of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman & Diu. After Goa was declared a state on 30th May, 1987, a separate UT of Daman & Diu was set up. Due to their historical legacy of being under the Portuguese rule, they have been merged into a single Union Territory without having any geographical contiguity.
Daman is a picturesque coastal town on the banks of the Damanganga River located at the point where it flows into the Gulf of Khambhat. Daman town is bifurcated by the Damanganga River with Nani Daman being in the north and Moti Daman in the South. It is located within close vicinity of major rail routes and also the national highway. Daman is gradually increasing its importance as a tourist destination especially as a weekend destination for tourists from Gujarat. Though the traditional set up is gradually changing, it still retains traces of its Indo-Portuguese heritage. Fishing is an important activity. Industrial activity is also picking up primarily in the industrial estates in Daman.
The bulk of the population is engaged in fishing and small trawlers dot the fishing jetties. Tourism is gradually getting a push and is set to grow in importance, where the local bodies can play a prominent role. Diu is relatively industrially backward compared to Daman and has only a small industrial estate. But off-late, the marine export industry has picked up and doing well in terms of profitability and additional employment opportunities for the local people purely as a private initiative.
The budgets are formulated at the Union Territory level based on the guidelines received from the Ministry of Home Affairs. Each department prepares its estimates which are then consolidated by the Finance Department of the UT. For the preparation of Plan Schemes, the Administration holds a meeting with all the departments including local bodies and after due deliberation the Plan schemes are formulated. The Budget proposals are then submitted to the Home Ministry who after discussion with the Administrator allot the Budget which is invariably much less than the amount sought. The fiscal position of the Union Territory of Daman & Diu though appeared to be a stable one, rising non plan expenditure is a concern, especially, if we look at it against the revenues collected. There has been reasonable growth in the tax revenues over the year though it lately appears to be tapering off.
This may perhaps be attributed to the recent slowdown in the economy. However the performance of non-tax revenue is very poor and is showing a strong negative growth rate. This is an area of concern and needs to be addressed.
Daman & Diu are following the Panchayati Raj system. It is functioning as a 2 tier system after the 73rd amendment to the Constitution of India. The first election in Daman & Diu was held in 1975 for the District Panchayat. Currently the system is under operation in both villages and district level and the last election was held in 2005. A District Planning Committee has been set up and the President of District Panchayat is functioning as a Chairperson of the District Planning Committee. The Zila Panchayat has various committees dealing with finance, health and education, welfare, implementation of public works and a General Standing Committee. The Daman & Diu Government have since July 2006 transferred 29 functions to the Panchayati Raj Institutions.
Under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission 2009-10 Daman Municipality has drawn up plans for a sewerage system (underground).
There are also plans for constructing dwelling units for improvement of slums. During the visit of the Commission to Daman and Diu, meetings were held with officers of the administration, members of the local bodies as well as other elected representatives. At Diu in the meeting with the Collector and the other Heads of Department the main point expressed was lack of powers and funds. Hence, the delegation to the Panchayats and Municipalities of powers and functions as well as funds was even less. There is no separate budget for Diu and funds are allocated both to the Departments as well as the local bodies from the head quarters by the UT administration. All the Department heads wanted more autonomy and flexibility to recruit staff, carry out major works and more funds so that maintenance and routine works were not neglected. This was specifically pointed out by the power, education, health and even the police departments. District Panchayats do not have their own sources of revenue as they cannot impose taxes of any kind. Despite the 29 subjects being transferred to the local bodies, the primary health facilities, the public distribution system and water supply schemes are still being run by the Administration. In its memorandum the District Panchayat President Daman has asked for the power to impose toll tax, as well as imposition of trade tax and professional fees.
The other major demand is that a fixed percentage of the planned budget be assigned to the District Panchayat especially schemes, providing new roads and bridges etc. It was suggested that at least 40% of the plan budget be given to the District Panchayat. Another demand is that the functionaries of the district Panchayat who are in a diverted capacity should not be under the control of the head of the Government department from where they originally came. The proposal to create permanent staff for the district Panchayat has also not been implemented. The power of recruitment has also not been delegated to the District Panchayat. The District Panchayats also want control of community assets like ponds, playgrounds etc so that revenue can be generated. They would also like 10% of central excise and income tax collected from Daman and Diu to be given to the UT administrations and out of that amount at least 40% be given to the District Panchayat.
One of the main demands of Daman Municipality is that 28% of the total budget allocation of the UT administration be transferred to the Municipal Council for developmental works as a grant-in-aid. They want all the duties and functions of Schedule twelve of the 74th constitutional Amendment be transferred to the Municipal Council with the funds, staff and infrastructure immediately. This they feel will help them to conduct their functions without going through a host of agencies outside the framework of the democratically elected system. All powers and functions and duties be given to the Municipal bodies is their major demand.
The Union Territory of Lakshadweep, a group of 11 inhabited and 25 uninhabited tiny islands, is geographically isolated and segregated at 200-400 km. from the Malabar Coast along the west coast of India. The only atolls in the Indian Union, they attracted the attention of naturalists for centuries. In view of the vast marine resources of the region, the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) Cochin established a centre for research at the Minicoy Island in 1958.
All the islands have lagoons, except Androth. The lagoon ecosystem supports a wide variety of animals and plants that support the livelihoods of people. They provide access to the islands through navigation, which requires constant dredging to maintain the depth of navigating channels. While it is an essential activity, it caused irreparable damage to corals and other fauna and flora by accumulation of silt and resultant sedimentation leading to chocking of corals and ultimate mortality. The live-baits, important for tuna pole and line fishing in the islands, abound in the lagoons and are collected by fishermen. Reports indicated the live-bait resources declined over the years, but attributed the damage to lagoon ecology through human activities and pollution of the lagoon waters.
High human population pressure is said to have a direct effect on lagoon resources. Hydrobiology of the lagoons indicated surface water temperature ranged between 32 and 38°C, salinity 36 and 39.39% and dissolved oxygen 2 and 6ml per litre. In most of the lagoons, secondary production was very poor but biomass of zooplankton from the seaward side of the lagoons was slightly higher, suggesting that the oceanic zooplankton might be nourished by coral reef community. Taking into consideration, the carrying capacity of the islands, the rich biodiversity and the geologically unstable zones, certain Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) norms were prescribed in the Ninth Five Year Plan period (1997-2002) for Lakshadweep. Development and population growth on the islands tend to weaken the symbiotic relationship between the society and the environment. The islands need enlightened and science based conservation efforts. Clean environment in the islands can be maintained by adhering to the EIA norms and implementation of the Provisions of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification of 2006.
An Administrator appointed by the President of India heads the Union Territory. The Administrator's Secretariat and the District Administration are functioning as compact units under a single file system.
Matters relating to the District Administration, law and order are under the purview of the Collector cum Development Commissioner who is also the District Magistrate. Lakshadweep is represented by a member of Parliament in the Lok Sabha. A two tier Panchayati Raj system has been set up in the Union Territory, like in Daman & Diu and in Dadra Nagar Haveli. Before we go into the issue of fiscal decentralization and the finances of local bodies, we need to examine the finances of the UT administration. The overall objective of the XIth Plan is to promote a self sustaining economy which can also make vital and strategic contributions to the economic development. While it is recognized that some subsidies must continue because of its isolated geographical location and the ecological fragility of the islands, it should be intended that these subsidies should help generate productivity and promote sustained economic progress. The complexities in working out a strategy for this island territory emanate largely from the peculiarities of its social, economic and ecological dimensions. Economic activities are still predominantly in the hands of the government. While private investments in the economic activities are required the role of the government in essential sectors like education, medical and healthcare, water supply and sanitation, besides in transport to provide connectivity are vital.
The strategic and ecological sensitive character of Lakshadweep calls for continued involvement of government. The local self government bodies are in a nascent stage and need to be nurtured to play a greater role in the development and growth of the islands. The Lakshadweep government intends that development should preserve the ecology of the islands and also its egalitarian social structure. The economic activities in Lakshadweep depend primarily on the land as well as on the surrounding water bodies the lagoons, coral reefs and the ocean. The landmass is very limited and the soil has unique characteristics. The scope for industrial development is thus severely limited in view of the ecological factor and isolated location. The prospects for economic activities would be to focus mainly on fisheries and tourism. Cottage industries could also play a supporting role. Subsidies should be related to productive activities and aim at promoting faster economic development and should taper down after reaching the self sustaining take off stage. Subsidies will however have to continue in transport, power, health, education sectors also for food grains. Subsidies will also be necessary to encourage local entrepreneurs to set up business ventures. The bulk of the Plan expenditure is focused on shipping and air connectivity and along with the power, fishing and tourism.
Panchayat in Lakshadweep are far closer to the people than those in the rest of the country, primarily owing to the smallness of the area and population. This proximity enhances the levels of the expectation of the people while the smallness makes it difficult to take unpopular decisions. Prior to the introduction of Panchayati Raj in the territory, there existed Citizen Councils in the islands and a Citizen Committee for the entire islands. There was an Administrators Advisory Council represented by members from all islands. The Seventy third Amendment to the Constitution led to the promulgation of Lakshadweep Panchayats Regulation, 1994. Then Village (Dweep) Panchayats in all the 10 inhabited islands with 79 elected members and a District Panchayat for the entire territory with 22 elected members were constituted in December, 1997 and January, 1998 respectively. The present Village (Dweep) Panchayats and District Panchayat are the third such bodies, which were constituted during December 2008 and January 2009. The Lakshadweep Administration, in addition to transferring the developmental schemes to the Panchayats along with staff and funds, also provide Rs. 1 crore to Panchayats as grant for the developmental schemes prepared by the Panchayats and as recommended by the District Planning Committee.
Out of this Rs. 30 lacs per annum is given to the District Panchayat and the balance of Rs. 70 lacs are distributed among the Villages (Dweep) Panchayats ensuring that even the smallest island of Bitra also gets Rs. 5 lakh per annum. Coconut production is the life-line of Lakshadweep. The industry tops in productivity and output of copra and coconut oil, with highest copra and coconut oil production in the world. The sector provides livelihood and food security to over 61,000 people and protection to coastal ecosystems. About 68% of cultivable land in the islands is under coconut cultivation. The growth of the industry is reported to be stunted mainly due to lack of allied manufacturing units, marketing and value addition. Although rodent attack on the palms is rampant, excessive use of rodenticides, (zinc compounds) was found ineffective on the ground and when leached out into the soil and water, was found to be toxic. It was suggested that coconut plantations should not be permitted on uninhabited islands, especially the Pitti and Cherbaniani islands which are important for bird nesting. Extensive coconut plantations on Bitra, Parlil and 2, Tinnakara, Suheli Veliakara and Cheriyakara resulted in their being abandoned as nesting sites by the birds. Frequent visits by tourists and fishermen to Suheli Pitti Island drove away nesting pelagic birds. Poaching of eggs of marine turtles is also known.
(vi) National Capital Territory of Delhi
Delhi is situated on the right bank of the river Yamuna at the periphery of the Gangetic plains. It lies a little north of 28 latitude and a little to the west of 78 longitude. To the west and south-west is the great Indian Thar desert of Rajasthan state, formerly known as Rajputana and, to the east lies the river Yamuna across which has spread the greater Delhi of today. The ridges of the Aravelli range extend right into Delhi proper, towards the western side of the city, and this has given an undulating character to some parts of Delhi. The meandering course of the river Yamuna meets the ridge of Wazirabad to the north; while to the south, the ridge branches off from Mehrauli. The main city is situated on the west bank of the river.
In 90% of the land in Delhi fresh water is available up to 60 m. depth and the quality of water is also all right i.e. in drinkable condition. Only some 10% of the area comprises the ridge and some has saline and brackish waters. The river Yamuna, the Aravalli range, and the plains in between both of these from alluvium deposits of recent formation dominate the physiography of Delhi. The Delhi Ridge and its four sections, the northern, the central, the south central and the southern constitute the farthest extension of the Aravalli range, its spurs meeting the Yamuna at two points, in the north and the east.
Ecologically, the Ridge acts a barrier between the Thar desert and the plains and slows down the movement of dust and wind from the desert. This green belt, a natural forest, has a moderating influence on temperature, besides bestowing other known benefits on the people. The Yamuna river and terminal part of the Aravali hill range are the two main geographical features of the city. The Aravali hill range is covered with forest and is called the Ridges; they are the city’s lungs and help maintain its environment. The Yamuna river is Delhi’s source of drinking water and a sacred river for most of the inhabitants.
Under the British:
The British began their rule in Delhi in 1805 with the operation of General Regulations made by the British under the charge of the Resident and Chief Commissioner of Delhi. The system continued with periodic modifications till 1857. In 1858, the British made Delhi a provincial town of the Frontier Province and later transferred it to the newly formed Punjab province under a Lieutenant Governor. Delhi continued to be administered directly by the Government of India through a Chief Commissioner till 1950.
The States Reorganization Commission, set-up in December 1953, recommended that Delhi, as the national capital, must remain under the effective control of the national government. It also suggested the formation of the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD). The Municipality evolved into the MCD, in which the DC had no role after 1958. The development works were transferred to the Development Commissioner, the industries work to the Directorate of Industries and the work of transport to the Department of Transport. Accordingly, the Council of Ministers and Legislative Assembly of Delhi ceased to exist from November 1, 1956. Delhi, as a Union Territory was administered thereafter by the President of India through a Chief Commissioner appointed under Article 239 till the Delhi Administration Act 1966 came into force.
The average annual rainfall in Delhi is 714 mm, three-fourths of which falls in July, August and September. Heavy rainfall in the catchment areas of the Yamuna can result in a dangerous flood situation for the city. During the summer months of April, May and June, temperatures can rise to 40-45 degrees Celsius; winters are typically cold with temperatures during December and January falling to 4 to 5 degree Celsius. February, March, October and November are climatically the best months.
Socio- Economic Conditions
Delhi is still partly rural. Delhi consists of 144 villages and covers an area of 541.5 sq. km. Mehrauli tehsil covers an area of 337.8 sq. km. and has 87 villages. In the 1901 Census, more than 48 per cent of Delhi's population lived in rural areas which showed a gradual decline from 43.7 per cent in 1911 to 7.3 per cent in 1981, though there has been a slight reversal of the trend i.e. 10.07 per cent in 1991. This has been due to the process of urbanization. During the 1981 Census 27 villages have been declared as census towns. Delhi villages which have coexisted with the sprawling urban settlements still retain a great deal of rural tradition. But farm houses of the nouve riche are mushrooming, bringing urban culture of a different kind to the rural people. It is only a matter of time before the villages become solidly a part of an urban culture, retaining no doubt a bit of the past, but also losing a great deal of it.
As the country’s capital, with vibrant trade and commerce and excellent employment opportunities. Delhi has attracted people from all over the country and its population today reflects the characteristics of almost every region. Delhi truly reflects the wealth and diversity of India wherein diverse religions, languages, customs and cultures co-exist in splendid plural harmony.
Religious, cultural and social functions of different socio-cultural groups have transformed Delhi into a city of festivals. Delhi is among the top three States/Union Territories in terms of per capita income (Rs. 38864 in 2000-01), current prices. More than 80% of the state income is from the tertiary sector. However with the continuous inflow of labours and unemployed persons.
Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe, and Yanam merged with Indian Union de facto on November 1, 1954. The de jure merger took place on August 16, 1962. Since then, Puducherry has witnessed development in most of the sectors. The global public goods like health and education sectors have displayed remarkable strides. Though agriculture has not shown much development in consonance with other sectors, the industries sector and service sectors have been growing exponentially. Infrastructure has been perceptibly well developed to the growing needs of the economy.
Social welfare programmes implemented in the state clearly reiterate the social embedded ness of the development in the economy. In the social sector, all the components have been making exceedingly good progress.
Education, both school and higher education, health and social security aspects have been making noticeable progress due to the proactive measures undertaken by the government. The progress in these sectors is made possible by the generous central grants to the level of ‘special category states.’ The resource base in the state has not been adequately tapped. Though the revenue account now consistently shows a surplus and budget almost balanced, the financial structure does not seem to be healthy due to the overdependence on the centre for grants. Tourism has vast potential to bring in more foreign exchange and revenue to the state. Though concerted efforts are being made to attract tourists, it has not made significant impact in bringing revenues. However, the population depending on the tourism industry has been growing considerably. The decentralisation initiative in conformity with the 73rd and 74th Constitution Amendment needs more attention. The local bodies’ election has been conducted after a long gap. Though e - governance initiatives have been taken up proactively, the transparency and information availability questions are not adequately addressed. Nevertheless, the growth and development of the state show signs of optimism.
Demographic and Economic Aspects
The natural resources in Puducherry remain very limited except for the marine resources. Further, the state does not have adequate infrastructure to assimilate the modern technology.
There is an urgent need to develop adequate infrastructure for modernising the fisheries sector and exploiting the coastal resources. In the case of water resources too, the integrated water resources management is required to cope with the convergence of rainfall from a bimodal into single season monsoon. The reduction of rainfall in the summers and winters would put tremendous pressure on the groundwater. The literacy rate across the region exhibits the total literacy in the Mahe region. The growth of literacy in the UT has been astounding in the successive census period.
There is a decreasing trend in infant mortality rates over the years, which is attributed to the efficiency of the health care system of the state. The regular immunisation and other check-ups indicate the improvement in the health parameters in the UT. The Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) and the Sri Aurobindo International Institute for Integral Health and Research (SAIIIHR) attract huge medical tourists into the UT. In the poverty level, the urban poverty is very high in the UT. Among the Union Territories, Puducherry has the highest number and proportion of BPL families. This manifests the widespread poverty in the urban areas in the Puducherry regions.
The growth of the economy is assessed with the help of GSDP across sectors over the period. The proportion of sectoral contribution to the GSDP indicates that the primary sector contribution has declined considerably to the level of some of the developed countries. Even the secondary sector contribution began to decline in the nineties. Only tertiary sector has been growing phenomenally. In the primary sector, contribution of fisheries tends to be higher than the agriculture. Most of the components in the tertiary sector have shown higher growth rates at constant prices. Conversely, there is a negligible growth rate in the old series at constant prices. The growth rate is relatively better in the new series at constant prices.
The industrial policy reforms have been rightly emphasising industrialisation in Puducherry as the state cannot depend on agriculture. Therefore, incentives and concessions continue to play a dominant role in attracting investments in industries in the state. Another important area which needs attention is irrigation, both surface and groundwater. The canal irrigation is limited to the Karaikal region which gets water through the Cauvery river, as per the award of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal. However the cause of concern is in relation to groundwater irrigation.
The groundwater potential has reduced over a period of time due to over exploitation, especially by the tubewells. Seawater intrusion into the groundwater aquifers is hindering the agricultural activity.
New schemes have been introduced for conservation of soil and water resources. Since projected water balance is negative, people show interest in goat rearing and fish farming as seen by the increase in number of goats and fish production. Dairy farming activity has decreased because of labour problem. Extension services needs to be strengthened to protect the primary sector activities. Rural development schemes have been introduced by the state government as well as Central government. But the performance has fallen short of targets. Training should be given to the farmers especially farm women, because they play an important role in farm activity. Production, productivity and diversification of crops should be increased to ensure food security but it should be achieved without harming the environment.
The Census data for the three points of time from 1981 to 2001 explicates that there is a considerable mobility in the labour force from one sector to another. Registered manufacturing sector has shown a marginal increase.
In the tertiary sector, the proportion of workers in the trade, hotels and restaurants, and other services tend to be more than other sectors in Puducherry. This manifests that the semi-skilled and unskilled workers from agriculture find some opportunities in the tertiary sectors. At present in Puducherry nearly 50 per cent of the workers count on tertiary sector for their livelihood. Across regions, agriculture sector engages more workers as agricultural labourers in the Karaikal region. More workers are involved in the fishing and livestock related activities in the Mahe and Yanam regions. In the manufacturing sector, Puducherry and Yanam regions engage higher proportion of workers. Karaikal is reporting very low proportion of workers in the secondary sector. It manifests that the natural advantages it has inherited have not been optimally utilised. It could be because of poor infrastructure facilities created. Nearly two-thirds of the workers are involved in the service sector occupations in the Mahe region. Since this is a small region with very limited scope for huge infrastructure development and raw material availability, the other sectors are not able to progress at the desirable levels. This manifests the diversities between the regions and its impact on the employment opportunities. While Karaikal has the advantage of primary sector development, Yanam and Puducherry regions have the infrastructure and natural advantage for promoting the manufacturing sector.
The tax revenue of Puducherry is mainly from the five sources of:
(i) sales tax
(ii) state excise
(iii) land revenue
(iv) stamp duty and registration fees
(v) taxes on vehicles.
Puducherry can tap about 19 sources of taxes as indicated in the list II of the Seventh Schedule. It should not limit itself to exploiting only the above five taxes, with major slant on the first two sources i.e., sales tax and state excise.