వాక్యరచనలో ప్రిపొజిషన్స్ను విస్తృతంగా ఉపయోగిస్తున్నారు. అందువల్ల ఇంగ్లిష్ వ్యాకరణ పరిజ్ఞానంలో ఇది ముఖ్యమైనది. ప్రిపొజిషన్ను ఉపయోగించే విధివిధానాలు, ఆయా సందర్భాలు సంక్లిష్టమైనవిగా అనిపిస్తాయి. దీనికి కారణం ఒకే ప్రిపొజిషన్ వేర్వేరు సందర్భాల్లో విభిన్న అర్థాలను ఇవ్వడమే కాకుండా ఇతర భాషాభాగాలుగా గుర్తించబడే పదాలు సైతం కొన్ని సందర్భాల్లో ప్రిపొజిషన్స్గా పనిచేస్తాయి. ప్రిపొజిషన్స్తో ఇన్ని విషయాలు ముడిపడి ఉన్నందువల్ల వాటి గురించి సవివరంగా తెలుసుకోవడం అవసరం.
What is a preposition?
A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount. For example, look at the following sentences and some common prepositions.
ఒక nounకు గాని pronounకు ముందు ఉండి, అవి తెలియజేయు వస్తువులకు, ఇతర వస్తువులకు ఉన్న సంబంధాన్ని తెలిపే మాటలను prepositions అంటారు.
She went to the store. (to is a preposition which shows direction)
He came by bus. (by is a preposition which shows manner)
They will be here at three o'clock. (at is a preposition which shows time)
It is under the table. (under is a preposition which shows place)
Def: - A preposition always goes with a noun or pronoun which is called the object of the preposition. The preposition is almost always before the noun or pronoun and that is why it is called a preposition. The preposition and the object of the preposition together are called a prepositional phrase.
ఒక preposition కు తర్వాత వచ్చే Noun లేదా pronoun ఎప్పుడూ object case లో ఉంటుంది. అప్పుడది ఆ preposition తో govern చేయబడుతుందని లేదా ఆ preposition కి object అని చెప్తారు.
The following chart shows the prepositions, objects of the preposition, and prepositional phrases of the sentences above.
Prepositional phrases are like idioms and are best learned through listening to and reading as much as possible. Below are some common prepositions of time and place and examples of their use.
Prepositions of time:
at two o'clock
in an hour, in January; in 1992
for a day
Prepositions of place:
at my house
in New York, in my hand
on the table
near the library
across the street
under the bed
between the books
* In grammar, a preposition is a part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase.
For example, "The cat sleeps on the sofa.
(the word "on" is a preposition, introducing the prepositional phrase "on the sofa")
In English, the most used prepositions are "of", "to", "in", "for", "with" and "on". Simply put, a preposition indicates a relation between things mentioned in a sentence.
Now it is clear that a preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence.
ఈ విధంగా ఒక నామవాచకం ముందు లేదా ఒక సర్వనామం ముందు ఉండి, ఆ పదానికి అదే వాక్యంలోని మరొక పదానికి మధ్యనున్న సంబంధాన్ని తెలియజేసే పదాన్ని ప్రిపోజిషన్ అంటారు. నామవాచకాన్ని లేదా సర్వనామాన్ని ప్రిపొజిషన్తో కలిపి ప్రయోగిస్తే నామవాచక లేదా సర్వనామ పదం ప్రిపొజిషన్కు ఆబ్జెక్ట్ అవుతుంది. కానీ కొన్ని సందర్భాల్లో ప్రిపొజిషన్ ఆబ్జెక్ట్ తర్వాత ఉంటుంది.
e.g. The book is on the table.
The book is beneath the table.
The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table.
She held the book over the table.
She read the book during class.
What are you searching for?
Please note that in each of the above sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.
Basic Uses of Prepositions
A preposition shows a relationship between its object and other words in a sentence. The preposition may be in the form of one word (at, by, in, on, etc.) or in the form of a phrase that functions as a unit (in front of, by way of, etc.)
Some of the relationships that prepositions express are place or position, time,
manner, direction, and agent.
The book is on the desk. (place or position)
The boy ran toward the house. (direction)
The man arrived at ten o'clock. (time)
He travels by train. (manner)
The book was written by him. (agent)
A preposition + an object form a phrase. This kind of phrase usually functions
as a modifier (adjective or adverb).
The report of the meeting was read. (adjective)
We go to class at ten o'clock. (adverb)
COMMIT TO MEMORY
We have now learnt that a preposition is a word to a group of words that show the relationship between two things, regardless of whether they're objects, ideas or actions. There are over 100 prepositions in the English language, many of which are naturally employed in day-to-day conversations. Without prepositions, sentences will not only sound awkward but could foster a confusing meaning.
Prepositions are also used in order to connect an object in a sentence. These will help in order to give the right and appropriate word in your content. However, even students who keep on learning this kind matter together in their English subjects at school don't even know how to use these words properly. Sometimes, these words are a bit confusing since there are times that other people think that they do have the same meaning.
It is felt that these words are really confusing, aside from their two-letter
spellings; they also serve the same function or the same meaning. Therefore, we've got to know deeper about these kinds of words since it can affect greatly when applied in our sentences.
There are 2 major rules when it comes to the use of prepositions.
1. The first major rule deals with preposition choice. Certain prepositions must follow certain words, and the correct preposition must be used to make relationships between words in the sentences clear.
2. The second major rule deals with the prepositions place in the sentence. Prepositions must be followed by nouns, and prepositions can only go on the end of the sentence in certain situations.
KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS
Broadly speaking, there are three kinds of prepositions in English.
1. Simple Prepositions: They are single word prepositions. There are about 100 prepositions in English. Yet this is a very small number when you think of the thousands of other words (nouns, verbs etc). Prepositions are important words. We use individual prepositions more frequently than other individual words. In fact, the prepositions of, to and in are among the ten most frequent words in English. Here is a short list of 70 of the more common one-word prepositions.
Many of these prepositions have more than one meaning. Please refer to a dictionary for precise meaning and usage.
2. Compound Prepositions: Compound prepositions are more than one word. For example, in between and because of are prepositions made up of two words - in front of, on behalf of are prepositions made up of three words. ఇవి నామవాచకానికి లేదా విశేషణానికి లేదా క్రియావిశేషణానికి ప్రిపొజిషన్ ముందు కలపడం ద్వారా ఏర్పడుతుంది.
e.g. about, above, across, along, amidst, among, amongst, around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, without, within etc.
3. Phrase Prepositions: A group of words acting together with force of a single preposition are called phrase prepositions. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
ఇవి పదబంధాల రూపంలో ఉన్నప్పటికీ ఏక మొత్తాలుగా పనిచేస్తూ ఒక సింగిల్ ప్రిపొజిషన్గా పనిచేస్తాయి.
e.g. according to, agreeably to, along with, away from, because of , by dint of,
by means of , in accordance with, in addition to, on behalf of, in case of,
in comparison to, in compliance with, in consequence of, in place of,
in reference to, in regard to, in spite of, instead of, in the event of, on account of,
by reason of, by virtue of, by way of , for the sake of, in course of, in favour of,
in front of, in lieu of, in order to, owing to, with a view to, with an eye to . . .
* Followed Prepositions: Certain Verbs, Nouns, Adjectives and Participles follow certain fixed prepositions. They are called followed prepositions. A list of followed prepositions is essential to get access to the use of this kind of prepositions.
కొన్ని ప్రత్యేకమైన Verbs, Nouns, Adjectives and Participles వాటివాటి ఫిక్స్డ్ ప్రిపొజిషన్స్తో ఫాలో అవుతాయి. ఏ పదానికి ఏ ప్రిపొజిషన్ వాడుకలో ఉందనే పరిజ్ఞానం తప్పనిసరి. ఇది చాలా ముఖ్యం. నిజానికి ప్రిపొజిషన్స్పై అభ్యర్థికి ఉన్న పట్టును పరీక్షించడానికి, ఈ రకమైన ప్రిపొజిషన్లపై అవగాహన ఉందో లేదో తెలుసుకోవడానికి ఇచ్చే ప్రశ్నలే ఎక్కువ.
e.g. She is fond of music. (fond is followed by of)
I am suffering from cold. (suffer is followed by from)
Mumbai is famous for textiles. (famous is followed by for)