India, with a population of over 1.4 billion, is now the most populous country in the world, surpassing China. However, it is not just the size of India’s population that makes it an important country; it is also the ...(1)... potential of its people. India’s demographic potential refers to the country’s large population of young people, who are expected to drive economic growth and development in the years to come. The youth population in India, defined as those between the ages of 15 and 24, makes up nearly 20% of the total population, which means that there are over 250 million young people in India today. This demographic dividend is a result of the country’s demographic .......(2)......., which refers to the shift from high fertility and mortality rates to low fertility and mortality rates. India’s fertility rate has been declining steadily over the past few decades, which means that fewer babies are being born each year. At the same time, improvements in healthcare and nutrition have led to a .......(3)....... in mortality rates, which means that people are living longer. This combination of factors has led to a large population of young people, who are now entering the workforce in large numbers. The demographic potential of India’s young people is significant for several reasons. Firstly, young people tend to be more innovative and entrepreneurial, which means that they are more likely to start new businesses and create new jobs. This can help to drive economic growth and reduce unemployment in the country. Secondly, young people tend to be more open-minded and .......(4)....... to change, which means that they are more likely to adopt new technologies and ideas. This can help to drive innovation and improve productivity in the country. Finally, young people tend to be more mobile and willing to move to new places in search of better opportunities. This can help to reduce regional .......(5)....... and promote more balanced economic growth across the country. However, the demographic potential of India’s young people can only be realized if the country is able to provide them with the education, skills, and opportunities that they need to succeed. Unfortunately, India’s education system is often .......(6)....... (applauded) for its poor quality and lack of access, especially for those living in rural areas. According to the World Bank, over 25% of the population in India is .......(7)....... (rich), and only 15% of the population has completed secondary education. This means that many young people in India do not have the basic skills and knowledge that they need to succeed in today’s global economy. To address this challenge, the Indian government has launched several .......(8)....... (discussions) aimed at improving the quality and accessibility of education in the country. For example, the government has launched them Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) program, which aims to provide free and compulsory education to all children between the ages of 6 and 14. The government has also launched the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) program, which aims to improve the quality of secondary education in the country. Additionally, the government has launched the Skill India program, which aims to provide vocational training to over 400 million people by 2022. Despite these initiatives, there is still a long way to go in terms of improving the quality and .......(9)....... (absence) of education in India. The country also faces other challenges, such as high levels of poverty, inequality, and unemployment, which can .......(10)....... (improve) the ability of young people to realize their full potential. However, there are also many reasons to be optimistic about India’s demographic potential. The country has a large and growing middle class, which is driving consumer demand and creating new opportunities for businesses. The government is also investing heavily in infrastructure, such as highways, railways, and airports, which is helping to connect different parts of the country and promote economic growth.
Directions (Qs. 1 - 5): In the above passage, there are blanks each of which has been numbered from 1 to 5. Against each number, five words are suggested and only one word fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in all the cases.
1. Select the most appropriate option for ... (1) ...
A) demographic B) commercial C) economical D) democratic E) secularistic
Explanation: ‘Demographics’ refers to statistical data that describes a population or group of people. This data can include age, gender, race, education level, income, occupation, marital status, and other characteristics. Demographics are often used in marketing, social research, and political analysis to better understand the characteristics and needs of a particular group of people (here about the people of India).
2. Select the most appropriate option for ... (2) ...
A) revolution B) transition C) rotation D) termination E) exemption
Explanation: The term “demographic transition” refers to the process of population change that occurs as a country (here India) moves from a traditional agrarian economy to a more modern industrialized economy. The demographic transition theory has been used to explain population trends in many countries around the world, and it is a useful tool for policymakers who are trying to understand and manage population growth. This theory is characterized into three stages: In the first stage, birth rates and death rates are both high, resulting in a stable but relatively small population. In the second stage, as the country develops and improves its healthcare and living conditions, the death rate decreases while the birth rate remains high, leading to a period of rapid population growth. Finally, in the third stage, birth rates also begin to decline as the country becomes more prosperous and educated, resulting in a stable population with a higher percentage of elderly individuals. India is now in second stage.
3. Select the most appropriate option for ... (3) ...
A) increase B) gradual C) decline D) steady E) static
Explanation: The word ‘decline’ refers to a decrease or reduction in something over time. According to the passage, the improvements in healthcare and nutrition have led to a decrease in mortality rates, which means that people are living longer.
4. Select the most appropriate option for ... (4) ...
A) defective B) reflective C) corruptive D) receptive E) suggestive
Explanation: The term ‘receptive’ refers to being open or willing to receive something, such as information, ideas, or feedback. According to passage, young people tend to be more open-minded and willing to change, which means that they are more likely to adopt new technologies and ideas. This will help in the development of personal and professional growth of individuals.
5. Select the most appropriate option for ... (5) ...
A) similarities B) equalities C) responses D) developments E) disparities
Explanation: The word ‘disparities’ refer to differences or inequalities between groups of people in various aspects, such as health, education, income, or social status. According to the passage, the receptive capability in the youth will reduce regional inequalities and promote more balanced economic growth across the country.
Directions (Qs. 6 - 10): In the above passage,mcertain phrases/ words (in brackets) are printed in bold, numbered from 6-10. Find out if there is an error in any of the given bold words. If there is any error, find the correct alternatives from the options given below each of the questions to make the sentence grammatically correct. If the given word is grammatically correct or does not require any correction, choose "No correction required" as your answer.
6. Select the most appropriate option for ... (6) ...
A) criticized B) clapped C) praised D) enjoyed E) No correction required
Explanation: The word ‘criticized’ is the appropriate word here. The word given in brackets(applauded) is used to show approval or appreciation for something. But according to the passage, India’s education system is often ‘criticized’ for its poor quality and lack of access to the poor. The word ‘criticize’ is used to express disapproval, judgment, or negative feedback about someone or something (here education system in India).
7. Select the most appropriate option for ... (7) ...
A) literate B) illiterate C) well sought D) land lord E) No correction required
Explanation: The word ‘illiterate’ is the appropriate word here. The word given in brackets (rich) refers to a person who is wealthy. According to the World Bank, over 25% of the population in India is illiterate, and only 15% of the population has completed secondary education. Illiteracy can be a significant barrier to personal, social, and economic development, as it limits access to information, opportunities, and resources.
8. Select the most appropriate option for ... (8) ...
A) schedules B) tours C) initiatives D) explorations E) No correction required
Explanation: The word ‘initiatives’ is the appropriate word here. The word given in brackets (discussions) refers to a conversation or exchange of ideas between two or more people with the intention of sharing information, expressing opinions, solving problems, or reaching a common understanding. An initiative refers to a new project, plan, or strategy that is taken on in order to achieve a particular goal or objective (here implementing programs such as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan - SSA and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan - RMSA program for improving the literacy rate in India).
9. Select the most appropriate option for ... (9) ...
A) inadequacy B) scarcity C) limitation D) accessibility E) No correction required
Explanation: The word ‘accessibility’ is the appropriate word here. The word given in brackets (absence) means not available. Accessibility means making things easy to use or access for everyone, regardless of their abilities or disabilities. According to the passage there is still a long way to go in terms of improving the quality and accessibility of education in India despite launching various programs for improving the literacy rate of India.
10. Select the most appropriate option for .. (10) ..
A) hinder B) binding C) hold D) extract E) No correction required
Explanation: The word ‘hinder’ is the appropriate word here. The word given in brackets (improve) means to make something better or to enhance its quality, value, or performance. To hinder means to create difficulties or obstacles that make it harder to achieve something or to progress. According to the passage, the country also faces other challenges, such as high levels of poverty, inequality, and unemployment, which can make harder for the young people to realize their full potential.