In 'Statements and Conclusions' type questions a statement is given followed by some conclusions. The candidate is required to go through the statements meticulously and then decide which of the given conclusion/s follows on its basis. Keywords such as all, no, few, most, must, had to, will be, always, never, should be, may, may not etc. help in evaluating the given conclusions.
Directions (Q.1-5): In each of the questions below are given three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I & II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts. Give answer 1) If only Conclusion I follows.
Give answer 2) If only Conclusion II follows.
Give answer 3) If either Conclusion I or II follows.
Give answer 4) If neither Conclusion I nor II follows.
Give answer 5) If both Conclusions I and II follows.
1. Statements: All benches are cots.
No cot is lamp.
Some lamps are candles.
Conclusions: I. Some cots are benches.
II. Some candles are cots.
Ans: only Conclusion I follows.
All benches are cots (A) → conversion → Some cots are benches (I). Hence follows.
No cot is lamp + some lamps are candles = E + I = O * = Some candles are not cots.
Hence II does not follow.
2. Statements: Some cats are dogs
All dogs are goats.
All goats are walls.
Conclusions: I. Some walls are dogs.
II. Some walls are cats.
Ans: both Conclusions I and II follows.
All dogs are goats + All goats are walls = A + A = A = All dogs are walls conversion Some walls are dogs (I). Hence I follows.
Some cats are dogs + All dogs are walls = I + A = I = Some cats are walls conversion Some walls are cats (I). Hence II follows.
3. Statements: Some buildings are sofas.
Some sofas are benches.
Some benches are tables.
Conclusions: I. Some tables are sofas.
II. No table is sofa.
Ans: either Conclusion I or II follows.
Some sofas are benches + Some benches are tables = I + I = No conclusion. Hence I and II do not follow by combination.
However, since they make a complementary I-E pair, either I or II follows.
4. Statements: All rats are bats.
Some bats are desks.
All desks are chairs.
Conclusions: I. Some desks are rats.
II. Some chairs are rats.
Ans: neither Conclusion I nor II follows.
All rats are bats + Some bats are desks = A + I = No Conclusion. Hence I and subsequently II do not follow.
5. Statements: Some roads are ponds.
All ponds are stores.
Some stores are bags.
Conclusions: I. Some bags are ponds.
II. Some stores are roads.
Ans: only Conclusion II follows.
Exp: All ponds are stores + Some stores are bags = A + I = No conclusion. Hence I does not follow. Some roads are ponds + All ponds are stores = I + A = I = Some roads are stores conversion Some stores are roads (I). Hence II follows.
Directions (Q.6-10): In the following questions, the symbols @, ©, $, % and * are used with the following meanings as illustrated below :
'P © Q' means 'P is not greater than Q'
'P % Q' means 'P is not smaller than Q'.
'P * Q' means 'P is neither smaller than nor equal to Q'.
'P @ Q' means 'P is neither greater than nor equal to Q'.
'P $ Q' means 'P is neither greater than nor smaller than Q'.
Now in each of the following questions, assuming the given statements to be true, find which of the two conclusions I and II given below them is /are definitely true.
Give answer 1) if only Conclusion I is true.
Give answer 2) if only Conclusion II is true.
Give answer 3) if either Conclusion I or II is true.
Give answer 4) if neither Conclusion I nor II is true.
Give answer 5) if both Conclusions I and II are true.
6. Statements: K @ V, V © N, N % F
Conclusions: I. F @ V II. K @ N
Ans: only Conclusion II is true.
K < V...(i); V ≤ N... (ii);
N ≥ F... (iii) From (ii) and (iii),
F and V can't be compared.
Hence I does not follow.
From (i) and (ii), K < V ≤ N or K < N. Hence II follows.
7. Statements: H©W, W$M, M@B
Conclusions: I. B * H. II. M%H.
Ans: both Conclusions I and II are true.
H ≤ W... (i); W = M (ii); M < B (iii) combining these, we get H ≤ W = M < B . Hence B > H and I follows. Also, M ≥ H and II follows.
8. Statements: D % B, B * T, T $ M
Conclusions: I. T © D II. M © D
Ans: neither Conclusion I nor II is true.
Exp: D ≥ B...(i); B > T... (ii); T= M... (iii) combining these, we get D ≥ B > T= M. Hence,
T < D and I (T ≤ D)does not follow. Also, M < D and II (M ≤ D ) does not follow.
9. Statements: M * T, T @ K, K © N
Conclusions: I. N * T II. N * M
Ans: only Conclusion I is true.
Exp: M >T... (i); T < K... (ii); K ≤ N (iii) From (ii) and (iii), we get T < K ≤ N or T < N or N > T. Hence I
follows. But, From (i) and I, we get no relationship between M and N. Hence II does not follow.
10. Statements: R$J, J%D, D * F
Conclusions: I. D $ R II. D @ R
Ans: either Conclusion I or II is true.
Exp: R = J .... (i); J ≥ D .... (ii); D > F... (iii)
combining these, we get R = J ≥ D > F. Hence D ≤ R.
So either I(D = R) or II (D < R) follows.
Directions (Q.11-15): In each question below is given a group of letters followed by four combinations of digits/symbols numbered 1), 2), 3) and 4). You have to find out which of the combinations correctly represents the group of letters based on the following coding system and the conditions and mark the number of that combination as your answer. If none of the four combinations correctly represents the group of letters, give 5) i.e., 'None of these' as the answer.
(i) If the first letter is a consonant and the last letter is a vowel, their codes are to be interchanged.
(ii) If both the first and the last letters are vowels, both are to be coded as .
(iii) If the first letter is a vowel and the last letter is a consonant, both are to be coded as the code for the consonant.
Exp: No conclusion applies.
Ans: * %654 *
Condition (ii) applies.
1) * 7@1 © * 2) 87@1©3 3) 37@1©8 4) 87 @1© 8 5) None of these
Condition (iii) applies and we get 37@1©3
Ans: $ 8 # 1@ 5
Condition (i) applies.
Exp: Condition (i) applies.
16. How many such pairs of letters are there in the word STAPLER each of which has as many letters between them in the word as in the English alphabet ?
17. In a certain code MODEL is written as '513#2' and DEAR is written as '3#%8'. How is LOAD written in that code?
18. Town D is to the West of town M. Town R is to the South of town D. Town K is to the East of town R. Town K is towards which direction of town D?
Ans: South - East
19. How many such digits are there in the number 5261983 each of which is as far away from the beginning of the number as when the digits are arranged in ascending order within the number?
20. What should come next in the following letter series ?
H G F E D C B A H G F E D C B H G F E D C H
H G F E D C B A /
H G F E D C B /
H G F E D C /
H G F E D /.......