SYLLOGISM

In logical reasoning, syllogism is an important topic. A syllogism is an inference drawn in which one proposition (the conclusion) follows of necessity from premises.

There are three kinds of syllogism: categorical, hypothetical and disjunctive. In a categorical syllogism, the major premise will state something that will be taken as an absolute starting point and the minor premise will be examined against this absolute starting point in order to infer the conclusion. An alternative name for the if/ then syllogism is the hypothetical syllogism. The disjunctive syllogism represents choice based like ‘either - or’ statement.

Effective methods step by step to solve syllogism:

Underline the number of variables given in statements and draw a Venn diagram while also connecting them with each other the way it has been mentioned in the statement.

Follow the sequence of the question while drawing Venn diagram.

* Analyse the conclusion from the Venn diagram and deduce the right conclusion.

Model Questions

Directions (Qs. 1-13): Study the following statements and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
1. Statements:
Only a few arts are Ants
Only a few Ants are Apples
Each Apple is Arrow
Conclusions:
I. Some arts are Arrow. II. No Arrow is art.
A) Only conclusion I follows
B) Only conclusion II follows
C) Either conclusion I or II follows
D) Neither conclusion I nor II follows
E) Both conclusions I and II follow

2. Statements:
Only a few yellow is Blue
All Blue is white
Only a few white is Gray
Conclusions:
I. Some Gray is yellow is a possibility.
II. No Gray is Blue.
A) Only conclusion II follows
B) Only conclusion I follows
C) Either conclusion I or II follows
D) Both conclusions I and II follow
E) Neither conclusion I nor II follows

3. Statements:
No pencil is Bag
Only a few Birds are Bags
Each pencil is Balloon
Conclusions:
I. All Birds being pencils is a possibility.
II. Some pencils being Balloons is a possibility.
A) Either conclusion I or II follows
B) Both conclusions I and II follow
C) Neither conclusion I nor II follows
D) Only conclusion II follows
E) Only conclusion I follow

4. Statements:
No Table is a Web
All Networks are Webs
Conclusions:
I. At least some Networks are Tables.
II. All pads being Networks is a possibility.
A) Only Conclusion II follows
B) Neither Conclusion I nor II follows
C) Either Conclusion I or II follows
D) Both Conclusions I and II follows
E) Only Conclusion I follows

5. Statements:
Some Ratios are Percent
All Percent are Fractions
No Fraction is a Section
Conclusions:
I. All Sections being Ratios is a possibility.
II. At least some Fractions are Ratios.
A) Only conclusion I follows
B) Either conclusion I or II follows
C) Neither conclusion I nor II follows
D) Both Conclusions I and II follow
E) Only Conclusion II follows

6. Statements:
Only a few elephants are horses
No horse is Cat
All Cats are Dogs
Conclusions:
I. All Dogs are elephants is a possibility.
II. Some Cats is not elephant.
A) Either conclusion I or II follows
B) Both conclusions I and II follow
C) Neither conclusion I nor II follows
D) Only conclusion II follows
E) Only conclusion I follows

7. Statements:
Only a few parrots are Raven
No Raven is Cuckoo
Each Cuckoo is Peacock
Conclusions:
I. Some Cuckoos are not parrot.
II. Some Peacocks are parrot is a possibility.
A) Only conclusion II follows
B) Only conclusion I follows
C) Either conclusion I or II follows
D) Both conclusions I and II follow
E) Neither conclusion I nor II follows

8. Statements:
No Goat is sheep
Only a few Grapes are sheep’s
No Grapes is Glass
Conclusions:
I. Some sheep are not Glass.
II. Some Grape are not Goat.
A) Either conclusion I or II follows
B) Both conclusions I and II follow
C) Neither conclusion I nor II follows
D) Only conclusion II follows
E) Only conclusion I follows

9. Statements:
All Words are numbers
Some numbers are Sentences
All Sentences are Paragraphs
Conclusions:
I. All Paragraphs being numbers is a possibility.
II. No Sentence is a Word.
A) Either conclusion I or II follows
B) Both conclusion I and II follow
C) Only conclusion I follows
D) Only conclusion II follows
E) Neither conclusion I nor II follows

10. Statements:
All Planets are Orbits
Some Orbits are Circles
No Planet is a Meteorite
Conclusions:
I. All Circles being Planets is a possibility.
II. At least some Circles are Orbits.
A) Only conclusion I follows
B) Only conclusion II follows
C) Either conclusion I or conclusion II follows
D) Neither conclusion I nor II follows
E) Both conclusion I and II follow

11. Statements:
A few Brushes are Combs
Only a few Soaps are Combs
No Soap is Box
Conclusions:
I. All Boxes being Comb is a possibility.
II. No Brush is Soap.
A) Only conclusion II follows
B) Only conclusion I follows
C) Either conclusion I or II follows
D) Both conclusions I and II follow
E) Neither conclusion I nor II follows

12. Statements:
No carrot is Mango
Only a few Mangoes are Melon
All Melons are Oranges
Conclusions:
I. All carrots are Melons.
II. All carrots being Oranges is a possibility.
A) Either conclusion I or II follows
B) Both conclusions I and II follow
C) Neither conclusion I nor II follows
D) Only conclusion II follows
E) Only conclusion I follow

13. Statements:
Each Plate is Bowl
All Bowls are planets
Only a few planets are Tray
Conclusions:
I. All Plates are planets.
II. Some Trays are Bowls.
A) Only conclusion II follows
B) Only conclusion I follows
C) Either conclusion I or II follows
D) Both conclusions I and II follows
E) Neither conclusion I nor II follows

Some more Questions

Directions (Q.s 1 - 5 ): In each question below are given some statements followed by some conclusions. you have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows/ follow from the given statements.

A) Only I follows B) Only II follows

C) Both I and II follows D) Either I or II follows

E) Neither I nor II follows

1. Statements: Each flower is door.

Few doors are trucks.

Conclusions:

I. All trucks being flower is a possibility.

II. Some doors are flowers.

Given that, 'all flowers are doors', so 'some doors are flowers' can be concluded. Since, there is no negative terms in the statement part, all trucks being flower is a possibility also true.

Hence both conclusions I and II follows. Ans: C

2. Statements: 72% violins are carpets.

Almost carpets are magnets.

Conclusions:

I. At least some magnets are violins.

II. No violin is magnet.

Here, '72% (some) violins are carpets' and 'almost (some) carpets are magnets'. From these two statements, we cannot conclude definitely that 'some magnets are violins' and 'no violin is magnet'. But here, both of them forms as a complementary pairs. Hence, either conclusion I or II follows. Ans: D

3. Statements: All bars are coconuts.

Not a single coconut is mushroom.

Conclusions:

I. No mushroom is bar.

II. Some bars being mushroom is a possibility.

Given, 'all bars are coconuts' and 'not a single (no) coconut is mushroom'. From these two, we can conclude that 'no mushroom is bar'. Whereas, 'some bars being mushroom' won't be a possibility. Hence, only conclusion I follows. Ans: A

4. Statements: Mostly pink are green.

100% green are violet.

Conclusions:

I. Every green being pink is a possibility.

II. Some violet are pink is a possibility.

'Mostly (some) pink are green' and '100% (all) green are violet'. From the given statements, 'every (all) green being pink is a possibility' follows but 'some violet are pink is a possibility' is failure here as some violet are pink is a definite conclusion from the statement it shouldn't be placed under possibility. So, only conclusion I follows. Ans: A

5. Statements: 0% utensils are machines.
At most machines are bamboos.

Conclusions:

I. Some utensils are definitely not bamboo.

II. Some bamboo are definitely not utensils.

Given that, '0% (no) utensils are machines' and 'almost (some) machines are bamboos'. According to given statements we can conclude 'some bamboos are definitely not utensils'. So, conclusion II follows. But the conclusion I 'some utensils are definitely not bamboo'may be true or may not be, we cannot say definitely. So, here only conclusion II follows. Ans: B

Directions (Qs. 6 - 10): Below are given few statements followed by few conclusions. pick up the right conclusion that follows.

6. Statements:

Only wallet is helmet.

A few wallets are pumpkins.

None of pumpkins are gloves.

Conclusions:

I. No glove is helmet.

II. All wallets being pumpkins is a possibility.

III. Some wallets are definitely not pumpkins.

A) Only I and II follows

B) Only I and III follows

C) Only III follows

D) Only II and III follows

E) None of the above

Given, 'only wallet is helmet' in the statement, mentions definitely that no other elements will be helmets. As per this, conclusion I follows. From, second and third statements we conclude, 'some wallets are definitely not pumpkins'. All wallets being pumpkins won't be a possibility as 'all wallets' include 'helmets' which shouldn't maintain relation with other
entities except wallets. So, only conclusion I and III follows. Ans: B

7. Statements:

Every cucumber is grapes.

Only a few grapes are papaya's.

No Papaya is pineapple.

Conclusions:

I. All papaya being grapes is a possibility.

II. All grapes being papaya is a possibility.

III. Some cucumber being pineapple is a possibility.

A) Only I and II follows

B) Only I follows

C) Only III and I follows

D) Only II follows

E) All follows

Given, 'only a few grapes are papayas' nothing but few grapes are papayas and few of them are not definitely. From, all the given three statements, only conclusion I and III follows.

Ans: C

8. Statements:

Many trousers are engines.

Only engines are containers.

Only a few laptops are trousers.

Conclusions:

I. some laptops are containers.

II. All engines being trousers is a possibility.

III. No laptop is container.

A) Only I and III follows

B) Either I or III follows

C) Only II follows

D) Only III follows

E) None follows

The second statement 'only engines are containers' mentions no other elements will be containers as definite. So conclusion III follows. Here, conclusion I and II does not follow from the given statements. Ans: D

9. Statements:

Only a few cupboards are vessels.

Only a few pillows are vessels.

Some drums are cupboards.

Conclusions:

I. Some drums are pillows.

II. Some pillows are not drums.

III. All pillows being cupboards is a possibility.

A) Only III follows

B) Either I or II and III follows

C) Only II follows

D) Both I and III follows

E) All follows

From given all the three statements, conclusion I and II does not follow as definite, but forms as complementary pair's. Conclusion III follows directly as a definite conclusion according to the given statements. Hence, either conclusion I or II and III follows. Ans: B

10. Statements:

Some pins are not hats.

All hats are muffets.

Some chains are hats.

Conclusions:

I. No chain is muffet is a possibility.

II. All pins being muffets is a possibility.

III. Some hats are pins.

A) Only III follows

B) Only II follows

C) Both I and II follows

D) Only I follows

E) All follows

Explanation:

According to the given statements 'all hats are muffets' and 'some chains are hats', the first conclusion 'no chain is muffet is a possibility' will be failure. From the statement 'some pins are not hats', we cannot conclude that some hats are pins (to say here it as definite conclusion, it should satisfy from both definite and possibility figures with respect to given statements). Hence, only conclusion II follows. Ans: B

Posted Date : 13-09-2022

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.