'A' Reading : Environment
By the end of the lesson you will be able to
* Know what is Biodiversity.
* Know the importance of balanced Environment and how to sustain it.
* Know the Wangari Maathai's Green belt movement and how she fought for equal rights for women in Africa.
* Know the one word substitutes, and non-finite clauses.
* Know the reported and direct speech.
ఈ పాఠం చివరలో మీరు:
* జీవవైవిధ్యం అంటే ఏమిటో తెలుసుకుంటారు.
* వనరుల (పరిసరాల) సమతుల్యత, ప్రాధాన్యాన్ని తెలుసుకుని ఎలా కొనసాగించాలో నేర్చుకుంటారు.
* వంగరి మతాయి గ్రీన్బెల్ట్ ఉద్యమం, ఆఫ్రికా స్త్రీల సమాన హక్కుల కోసం ఆమె పోరాడిన విధానాన్ని గురించి తెలుసుకుంటారు.
* వన్వర్డ్ సబ్స్టిట్యూట్స్, నాన్ఫినిట్ క్లాజెస్ గురించి తెలుసుకుంటారు.
* రిపోర్టెడ్, డైరెక్ట్స్పీచ్ల గురించి తెలుసుకుంటారు.
The given contest is excerpt from Wangari Mathai, an environmentalist interview with NHK Radio Japan, who started the Green Belt Movement and fought for equal rights for women in Africa and is the first women to win the Noble Prize.
When she started movement, she was trying to respond to the basic needs of people in the rural areas. People were asking for clean drinking water, for food, for energy (which is mostly firewood) for building material and for fodder for the animals which are all come from the land.
They didn't have those things because the environment was degraded. From the very beginning they understood that they have rehabilitate the environment. The good management of the natural resources equitable distribution of these resources is important for peace.
The African stool is on three themes, they are peace, good governance and sustainable management of resources. She memorised her childhood, the environment was very pristine, very beautiful and very green. At the same time British Government wanted to establish commercial plantation of exotic species such as the Pines and Eucaliptus. They grow tall and very fast but destroy all local biological diversity. All the flora and fauna disappeared. As a result the forest was no longer contain water. So, when the rains fell the water ran downstream and ended up in the lakes and ocean instead of going down into the underground reservoir. The thing she noted is that not only did the rain patterns change, became less, but also the rivers started drying up. There was lot of damage to environment.
To over come these things she took intiation with the message "Plant a tree, we plant hope". She made them how to plant a tree and got the confidence in them about the forestry. Maathai called them "forestors without diploma".
The biggest transformation observed in them that they got understand and able to plant trees in five years. The other is the transformation of the landscape. Places where there was dust, are no more dust. There are trees, birds and rabbits. They make the environment very beautiful. The other transformation is, the willingness of the people to fight for their rights. They inspired not only the Africans but the whole world.
ప్రస్తుత పాఠ్యభాగం నోబెల్ బహుమతి గ్రహీత, ఆఫ్రికాలో పర్యావరణ పరిరక్షణ ఉద్యమకర్త వంగరి మతాయిని జపాన్లోని NHK రేడియో చేసిన ఇంటర్వ్యూ సంగ్రహణం.
గ్రామీణ ప్రాంతంలో నివసిస్తున్న ప్రజలకు ప్రాథమిక అవసరాలైన నీరు, వంటచెరకు, గృహ నిర్మాణానికి ఉపయోగపడే కర్రలు, పశువుల మేత లాంటివి భూమి నుంచి లభిస్తున్నాయి. అడవులను పెంచి, వనరుల నిర్వహణ సక్రమంగా జరిగితే ప్రపంచ శాంతి సిద్ధిస్తుంది. శాంతి, సుపరిపాలన, సమతాస్థితిలో వనరుల నిర్వహణ లాంటి మూడు అంశాలపై ప్రపంచ సాధికారత ఆధారపడి ఉంది. వంగరి మతాయి తన గతాన్ని నెమరువేసుకుంటూ, బాల్యంలో పరిసరాలు చాలా శుభ్రంగా, స్వచ్ఛంగా ఉండేవి. ఆంగ్లేయులు వాణిజ్యపరమైన పైన్, యూకలిప్టస్ చెట్లను పెంచడం మొదలుపెట్టారు. అవి త్వరగా పొడుగ్గా పెరిగి అక్కడి జీవవైవిధ్యాన్ని నాశనం చేశాయి. ఫలితంగా వర్షపు నీరు భూమిలోకి ఇంకకుండా దిగువ ప్రాంతం ద్వారా ప్రవహించి నదులు, సముద్రంలో కలవడం వల్ల భూగర్భ నీరు ఎండిపోయింది. ఈ విధంగా జంతు జీవనం, పచ్చదనం లేకపోవడంతో పరిసరాల విఘాతం ఏర్పడింది. దీన్ని అధిగమించడానికి 'ఒక మొక్కను నాటితే ఒక ఆశను నాటుకున్నట్లే' సందేశంతో వంగరి మతాయి మహిళలకు చెట్లు నాటడం, నాటితే వాటి వల్ల కలిగే లాభాలను చెప్పి, విత్తనాలను అందజేసి ప్లాస్టిక్ కవర్లలో సంరక్షణ చేసి సగం మీటరు పెరిగిన తర్వాత వాటిని వివిధ ప్రాంతాల్లో నాటడం నేర్పించారు. మతాయి వారిని 'ఫారెస్టర్స్ వితవుట్ డిప్లొమా' అని సంభోదించారు. ఈ విధంగా చేయడం వల్ల వారికి కావాల్సిన పశువుల మేత, వంటచెరకు; వారికి అందుతాయని నమ్మకం కలిగింది. వారిలో గణనీయమైన మార్పు వచ్చింది. వారనుకున్న భూతల ప్రకృతి దృశ్యాన్ని మార్పు చేసుకున్నారు. మహిళలు తమ హక్కుల కోసం పోరాటం చేయడం మొదలైంది. ''ఒక మొక్కను నాటితే ఒక ఆశ నాటుకున్నట్లే, పరిసరాలకు ఒక మొక్క అద్భుతమైన చిహ్నం" అనే సమాచారాన్నిస్తూ ముగించింది.
Go about (Phrasal Verb) = tackle
Fight over (Phrasal Verb) = argue about something
One word substitutes
1. A person who is concerned about the natural environment and wants to improve and protect it - Environmentalist
2. The Study of relation of animals and plants to their surroundings - ecology
3. A person who studies the human race especially of its origins - Anthropologist
4. A person who studies the remains of buildings and objects found in the ground - Archaeologist
5. A Scientist who studies the earth, the origin of the history of rocks - Geologist
6. A person who studies birds Scientifically - Ornithologist
7. A Scientist who studies physics - Physicist
8. A doctor who studies and treats heart diseases - Cardiologist
9. A person who believes in solving human problems with the help of reason - Rationalist
10. A Scientist who studies animals and their behaviour - Zoologist
11. A Scientist who studies the mind of person - Psychiatrist
12. A person who solves problems in a practical and sensible way - Realist
13. A person whose job is to take care of people's teeth - Dentist
14. A person who studies languages - Linguist
Non - Finite Clauses
Non – finite clauses are simply dependent clauses that use non – finite verbs. They don't contain a finite verb. In these clauses the verb is in a participle or infinite form.
A. The following underlined are non - finite clauses.
1. Born in London, he became the citizen of U.K.
2. Having done his homework, he went out to play.
3. Recognised by his boss, he got an appreciation letter.
4. Encouraged by his father, Ravi got distinction in his final examination.
5. With the tree grown tall, we get more shade.
6. We left the room and went home, to search for the books.
7. Do we have the money to buy that car.
8. We were not able to get away until now.
9. Having read the book, I returned it to the library.
10. Jumping on his horse the farmer rode to the market.
B. Look at how the following sentences have been rewritten to include non-finite clauses.
1. Vincent Van Gogh, Who was born in Holland in 1853, is one of the world's most famous painters.
A: Born in Holland in 1853, Vincent Van Gogh is one of the world's famous painters.
2. Although his tallent was unrecognized throughout his life, it was much appreciated after his death.
A: Although unrecognized throughout his life, his talent was much appriciated after his death.
3. After he had failed in every career he had attempted, Van Gogh first turned to art to express his strong religious feelings.
A: Having failed in every career he had attempted, Van Gogh first turned to art to express his strong feelings.
C. Rewrite the following sentences to include non-finite clauses.
1. After he had decided to become a painter, in about 1880, he started to paint studies of peasants and miners.
2. During the next few years, which are known as his 'Dutch Period', he produced paintings with rather dark greenish - brown colours.
3. In 1886, when he went to Paris to visit his brother Theo, he was immediately attracted to the impressionist work he saw there. He decided to stay in Paris and continued his painting there.
4. He was encouraged by Pissaro to use more colour in his pictures and his subsequent paintings were bright and immensely colourful.
5. After Van Gogh had moved to Arles in the south of France, in 1888, he worked frantically.
6. This frenzied activity, which was interrupted by bouts of deep depression and despair, produced the majority of his most famous paintings.
7. One of these, which is called Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear, shows Van Gogh. He was wearing a bandage after he had cut off his ear. A year later, in 1890, he committed suicide.
8. A lot is known about Van Gogh's life and his feelings becuse of the hundreds of letters, which were written by him to his brother Theo and others.
9. His brother always encouraged him in his work because he believed in Van Gogh's genius. He was the person closest to Van Gogh.
1A: Having decided to become a painter, in about 1880, he started to paint studies of peasants and miners.
2A: Knowing as his 'Dutch Period' during the next few years, he produced paintings with rather dark greenish brown colours.
3A: Having gone to pairs to visit his brother Theo, in 1886, he was immediately attracted to the impressionist work he saw there. On deciding to stay in Paris, he continued his painting there.
4A: Encouraged by Pissaro to use more colour in his pictures, his subsequent paintings were bright and immensely colourful.
5A: Having moved to Arles in the south of France, in 1888, he worked frantically.
6A: Interrupted by bouts of deep depression and despair, his frenzied activity produced the majority of his most famous paintings.
7A: Having cut off his ear, Van Gogh wore a bandage. After show "Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear'', he committed suicide a year later in 1890.
8A: Written hundreads of letters by Van Gogh to his brother Theo and others, a lot is known about his life and his feelings.
9A: Belived in Van Gogh's genius his brother always encouraged him in his work.
Direct and Indirect Speech
Speeches are divided into two types.
They are 1) Direct Speech and
2) Indirect Speech
The actual words of speakers are called Direct Speech. Words spoken by Speaker are enclosed with in ''invered commas".
e.g.: Mahesh said, "Iam playing chess."
(Reporting Verb) (Reported Verb)
The meaning of Speakers words are called Indirect Speech. Words spoken by speaker are not enclosed with in "inverted commas".
e.g.: Mahesh said that he was playing chess.
The following rules should be followed changing the Direct Speech into Indirect Speech.
* When Direct Speech is modified into Indirect Speech remove the inverted commas.
* After Indirect Speech there should be full stop.
* Combine the reported and reporting verb with conjunction.
Tenses also changed as following
The following verbs also changed as following
The following words also changed.
The following Pronouns also changed
I. Assertive Sentence (Statement)
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
1. Direct Speech: Pramoda said, "I teach the grammar".
Indirect Speech: Pramoda said that she taught grammar.
2. Direct Speech: Bhanu said to me, "He speaks Tamil".
Indirect Speech: Bhanu told me that he spoke Tamil.
3. Direct Speech: Usha Said, "She telephones me".
Indirect Speech: Usha said that she telephoned her.
4. Direct Speech: Meena said, "Iam speaking in English."
Indirect Speech: Meena said that she was spaking in English.
5. Direct Speech: Raju said, "Narender is working hard."
Indirect Speech: Raju said that Narender was working hard.
6. Direct Speech: Shanthi said, "I have eaten meal."
Indirect Speech: Shanthi said that she had eaten meal.
7. Direct Speech: She said, "She has been working as a lecturer since 1980".
Indirect Speech: She said that she had been working as a lecturer since 1980.
8. Direct Speech: Sandhya said "I took my chain".
Indirect Speech: Sandhya said that she had taken her chain.
9. Direct Speech: Kishan told her, "They went to Vizag".
Indirect Speech: Kishan told her that they had gone to Vizag.
If reporting verb is in present tense (Say, Says, Says to, tell, tells) There should be no change in reported verb except pronouns.
1. Direct Speech: Bharath says, "I send you book."
Indirect Speech: Bharth says that he sends him book.
2. Direct Speech: Venu says to student, "I teach a lesson."
Indirect Speech: Venu tells student that he teaches a lesson.
3. Direct Speech: Baba tells people, "do what I say."
Indirect Speech: Baba tells people that do what he says.
4. Direct Speech: Gandhi Says, "All of we have to speak truth."
Indirect Speech: Gandhi says that all of they have to speak truth.
II. Imperative sentence (Command, order, request, wish, warning, advice etc.)
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
In imperative sentences in Indirect speech after reporting verb we should write personal pronouns followed by "to" infinites.
1. Direct Speech: "Post this letter" Swamy said to Kiran.
Indirect Speech: Swamy orderd Kiran to post that letter.
2. Direct Speech: Joshna said to me, "Prepare well for exam."
Indirect Speech: Joshna advised me to prepare well for exam.
III. Interrogative sentences (Questioning)
1. In indirect Speech reporting verb is asked or questioned using what, where, whether, if, that
(1) He closes the door (does close)
(2) He close the door (do close)
(3) He closed the door (did close)
1. Direct Speech: Principal said, "Did you go there?"
Indirect Speech: Principal questioned if he had gone there.
2. Direct Speech: She said to me, "Do you take tea?"
Indirect Speech: She asked me whether he took tea.
IV. Exclamatory sentences (Exclaimed, wondered, wished, blessed)
Indirect speech should be assertive
1. Direct Speech: Raghu said, "How clever you are!"
Indirect Speech: Raghu exclaimed that I was very clever.
2. Direct Speech: Suresh said to me, "Hurrah! they won the match."
Indirect Speech: Suresh exclaimed that they had won the match.
3. Direct Speech: Swapna said, "What a beautiful flower!"
Indirect Speech: Swpna wondered that it was beautiful flower.
A. Write the following in Reported Speech:
NHK Radio : What is one thing we can do?
Wangari Maathai : For me, my greatest activity is to plant a tree. I think that a tree is a wonderful symbol for the environment and when we plant a tree we plant hope. We plant the future for ourselves, for our children, for the birds. We plant something that will last, long after we are gone.
A: NHK Radio asked Wangari Maathai what the one thing was they could do. Wangari Maathai answered that for her, her greatest activity was to plant a tree. She thought that a tree was a wonderful symbol for the environment and when they planted a tree they planted hope. They planted the future for themselves, for their children, for the birds. They planted something that would last, long after they were gone.
B. Report the following dialogue:
Man: I'm doing a survey on shopping habits.
Woman: Ok. As long as it doesn't take long.
Man: How often do you eat hamburgers?
Woman: Never. I'm vegetarian. I don't eat any animal products.
Man: Right! Can I just ask you a personal question? Are you wearing leather shoes?
Woman: Yes, Iam.
Man: Don't you think that's rather hypocritical?
Woman: No, not really.
Man: Oh, that's amusing.
A: The Men told the woman that he was doing a survey on shopping habits. The woman told the man that it was right as long as it did not take long. The man asked the woman how often she ate hamburgers. The woman answered that never. She was a vegetarian. She did not eat any animal products. The man told the woman that it was right and asked if he could just ask her and added if she was wearing leather shoes.
The woman answered that yes, she was. The man asked the woman if she did not think that was rather hypocritical. The woman answered that no, not really. The man exclaimed that it was amusing.
Writer by M. V. Satyanarayana