As students take to new streams in Engineering the number of people who have taken up and continue to practice civil engineers has fallen. However contrary to student expectations civil engineering with its specializations continues to be in demand in many countries. The development and constructions of modern, efficient and environment friendly infrastructure is fueling demand for people who have competencies in this field.
Environmental engineering has emerged as a specialization with the objective of ensuring that societal development and the use of water, land and air resources are sustainable. This is achieved by managing these resources in such a way that environmental pollution and degradation is minimized.
The activities of environmental engineers include planning, design, construction and operation of water and wastewater treatment facilities in municipalities and industries, modeling and analysis of surface water and groundwater quality, design of soil and remediation systems, planning for the disposal and reuse of wastewaters and sludge’s, and the collection, transport, processing, recovery and disposal of solid wastes according to accepted engineering practices.
Environmental engineers play an important role in environmental protection, because engineering solutions are required to meet the environmental standards set by legislation. Environment engineers can build their careers in Consulting firms, municipalities, government agencies, industries, non-governmental organizations and large private sector construction, research institutions and universities. This program is open to students with civil or chemical engineering background. Most universities do not require GRE however top universities expect GRE of 290+
Geotechnical engineering is the study of the behavior of soils when load is applied and interactions it has with water. This knowledge is applied to the design of foundations, retaining walls, earth dams, clay liners, and geo-synthetics for waste containment. Recent computational and computer advances are extending our ability to predict the behavior of soil and soil-water systems under a wide variety of conditions.
The role of geotechnical engineers ranges from the design of foundations, temporary excavation support, route selection for railways and highways, designing landfill for disposal of wastes and groundwater contamination. In recent years, the activities of geotechnical engineers has expanded into Geo-environmental engineering with the designing of solutions for cleaning-up of contaminated soils and groundwater sites
Geotechnical engineers can build a career in resource industries (like mining, petroleum), specialized construction (like bridges, canals, dams, road and railway routes), military, consultants, public utilities, governmental agencies and environmental agencies
This specialization is available only in few universities GRE is not mandatory for admission.
Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering
Hydraulic and Water resources engineering is the study of the distribution and circulation of water linking the earth's atmosphere, land and oceans and the application of fluid mechanics to water flowing in an isolated environment (pipe, pump) or in an open channel (river, lake, ocean). It is applied in the management of the urban water supply, the design of urban storm-sewer systems, and flood forecasting, design of hydraulic structures, such as sewage conduits, dams and breakwaters, the management of waterways, such as erosion protection and flood protection, and environmental management, such as prediction of the mixing and transport of pollutants in surface water.
In recent years concern for preserving the environment and meeting the needs of developing countries has increased the importance of water resources engineering. Job opportunities in hydrology and water resources are quite varied. Positions are available in large and small consulting firms, large construction companies and at all levels of government, geology and geographical information systems (GIS) support organizations, university and research labs This specialization is offered by few universities and demand is very high therefore GRE requirements have gone up in recent years. Students should have GRE of 298+ and academic of 60%+.
Structural engineering involves conceptualisation, analysis, design and construction of structures that can withstand stresses and pressures from internal and external forces. It includes the study of the distribution of stresses that a load produces on a solid element and the calculation of strains, assembling elements, such as beams and columns, into a structure that will resist both static and dynamic loads, such as gravity, wind, snow and earthquakes. With the expanded use of reinforced plastics and polymers the scope of materials has widened beyond steel and concrete.
While typical civil engineering structures include large buildings, bridges and dams, graduates with a specialization in structural engineering may also be concerned with designing the structures of machinery, vehicles, aircraft and spacecraft. Now rehabilitation of existing structures has also become an important task. Employment opportunities include work with consulting structural engineers, construction companies, building development companies, architects, engineering departments of private corporations, aircraft and aerospace related companies, auto component manufacturers, heritage maintenance teams, public utilities, and government agencies. Almost all universities offer structural engineering. Students need at least 60% in their bachelors and 295+ in GRE.
Transportation engineers plan, design, build, operate and maintain transport systems, such as to provide for the safe, efficient and convenient movement of people and goods. Professional activities include design and operation of road and transits, Location, construction and operation of railroads, seaways and airports, at both regional and national levels. transportation engineers faces the challenge of balancing development of network links and major terminals to satisfy transportation demands, with regard for land-use, environmental, congestion and other impacts of these facilities.
Employment opportunities for transport engineers are available in the public sector with transportation ministries, regional and municipal roads, traffic and transit agencies other development departments like port and airport authorities and the private sector with engineering consultants, trucking, railroad and airline companies, vehicle manufacturers and contractors for execution of projects. Transportation engineers also participate in integrated town planning which not only includes road and rail networks but also lighting, terminals traffic signaling, walkways and other related services.
There are moderate number of universities offing this course. In order to make complicated model universities prefer bright candidates and look for students with 70% in acedemics and 300+ in GRE.
Construction management or construction project management (CPM) is the overall planning, coordination, and control of a project from inception to completion. Work of construction Manager fall into categories- Project Management Planning, Cost Management, Time Management, Quality Management, Contract Administration, Safety Management, and CM Professional Practice which includes specific activities like defining the responsibilities and management structure of the project management team, organizing and leading by implementing project controls, defining roles and responsibilities and developing communication protocols, and identifying elements of project design and construction likely to give rise to disputes and claims.
Graduates have a variety of employment opportunities. Potential employers include general contractors, real estate developers, sub contractors, construction management firms and architectural engineering firms, quantity surveying with government departments and consultants. They also have the opportunity to start up their own businesses in this field.
Few universities offer this course. Since this is a management cum engineering degree universities prefer candidates with work experience in the relevant field. Only few universities offer this course to freshers. Private universities have taken advantage of demand in this course and are offering it at lower cut offs. Students usually need 60% in their bachelors to get an admission.
Construction engineering is an interdisciplinary stream between civil (learning the design aspects) and site management. it deals with the designing, planning, construction and management of infrastructures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and utilities. Construction engineers may be involved in financial planning, working with subcontractors, and interacting with clients on an ongoing basis.
Construction engineers can work in overseeing the construction of airports, malls, schools, manufacturing facilities, highways, high rise structures, water treatment plants and much more. Recent graduates with a degree in construction engineering may find themselves planning a new project, organizing work staff, setting up schedules, and considering safety issues. Their primary role is to deliver a project on time, within budget, and of the desired quality.
This course is also not available in many universities. Students who do not have work experience prefer this over construction management. Universities usually look for students with academics of 70%+ and GRE of 298+.